Amendment: Section 5E1.2 is amended by deleting:
"(a) Except as provided in subsection (f) below, the court shall impose a fine in all cases.",
and inserting in lieu thereof:
"(a) The court shall impose a fine in all cases, except where the defendant establishes that he is unable to pay and is not likely to become able to pay any fine.".
Section 5E1.2(d)(2) is amended by deleting "the ability of the defendant" and inserting in lieu thereof "any evidence presented as to the defendant’s ability".
The Commentary to §5E1.2 captioned "Application Notes" is amended in Note 3 by deleting the fourth sentence as follows:
"In many cases, circumstances will make it unnecessary to consider these standards other than in the most general terms.";
and by inserting the following additional paragraphs at the end:
"Where it is readily ascertainable that the defendant cannot, and is not likely to become able to, pay a fine greater than the maximum fine set forth in Column B of the Fine Table in subsection (c)(3), calculation of the alternative maximum fines under subsections (c)(2)(B) (twice the gross pecuniary loss caused by the offense) and (c)(2)(C) (three times the gross pecuniary gain to all participants in the offense) is unnecessary. In such cases, a statement that ‘the alternative maximums of the fine table were not calculated because it is readily ascertainable that the defendant cannot, and is not likely to become able to, pay a fine greater than the maximum set forth in the fine table’ is recommended in lieu of such calculations.
The determination of the fine guideline range may be dispensed with entirely upon a court determination of present and future inability to pay any fine. The inability of a defendant to post bail bond (having otherwise been determined eligible for release) and the fact that a defendant is represented by (or was determined eligible for) assigned counsel are significant indicators of present inability to pay any fine. In conjunction with other factors, they may also indicate that the defendant is not likely to become able to pay any fine.".
Reason for Amendment: This amendment clarifies the operation of this guideline.
Effective Date: The effective date of this amendment is November 1, 1990.