Amendment: The Commentary to §4A1.2 captioned "Application Notes" is amended in Note 6 by deleting:
"Any other sentence resulting in a valid conviction is to be counted in the criminal history score. Convictions which the defendant shows to have been constitutionally invalid may not be counted in the criminal history score. Also, if to count an uncounseled misdemeanor conviction would result in the imposition of a sentence of imprisonment under circumstances that would violate the United States Constitution, then such conviction shall not be counted in the criminal history score. Nonetheless, any conviction that is not counted in the criminal history score may be considered pursuant to §4A1.3 if it provides reliable evidence of past criminal activity.",
and inserting in lieu thereof:
"Also, sentences resulting from convictions that a defendant shows to have been previously ruled constitutionally invalid are not to be counted. Nonetheless, the criminal conduct underlying any conviction that is not counted in the criminal history score may be considered pursuant to §4A1.3 (Adequacy of Criminal History Category).".
The Commentary to §4A1.2 captioned "Application Notes" is amended in the caption of Note 6 by deleting "Invalid" and inserting in lieu thereof "Reversed, Vacated, or Invalidated".
The Commentary to §4A1.2 is amended by inserting at the end:
"Background: Prior sentences, not otherwise excluded, are to be counted in the criminal history score, including uncounseled misdemeanor sentences where imprisonment was not imposed.
The Commission leaves for court determination the issue of whether a defendant may collaterally attack at sentencing a prior conviction.".
Reason for Amendment: This amendment clarifies the circumstances under which prior sentences are excluded from the criminal history score. In particular, the amendment clarifies the Commission’s intent regarding the counting of uncounseled misdemeanor convictions for which counsel constitutionally is not required because the defendant was not imprisoned. Lack of clarity regarding whether these prior sentences are to be counted may result not only in considerable disparity in guideline application, but also in the criminal history score not adequately reflecting the defendant’s failure to learn from the application of previous sanctions and his potential for recidivism. This amendment expressly states the Commission’s position that such convictions are to be counted for the purposes of criminal history under Chapter Four, Part A.
Effective Date: The effective date of this amendment is November 1, 1990.