Identity Theft

Identity theft is the fraudulent acquisition and use of a person's private identifying information, such as their name or social security number, usually for financial gain.


The act of entering a country with the intention of settling there permanently.


The act of confining a person in a penal institution such as a jail or prison for the purpose of serving a sentence imposed by a court.

Inadequacy of Criminal History

A departure provision in the Guidelines Manual providing authority to impose a sentence above or below the guideline range if the court determines that the defendant’s criminal history category substantially under-represents or over-represents the seriousness of the defendant’s criminal history or the likelihood the defendant will commit other crimes. See USSG §4A1.3.


A formal, written accusation of a crime made by a grand jury and presented to a court for prosecution of a person.


A formal, written accusation of a crime made by a prosecutor in those jurisdictions that do not use grand juries.

Instant Offense

The term “instant” is used in connection with “offense” to distinguish crime for which the defendant is being currently sentenced from a prior or subsequent crime that the defendant committed.

Intermittent Confinement

A sentence consisting of periods of confinement interrupted by periods of freedom. See USSG §5F1.8, comment. (n.1). Intermittent confinement may be imposed a condition of probation or supervised release. See USSG §5F1.8.

Internet Protocol (IP) Address

A distinct numeric fingerprint assigned to each device connected to a network using Internet Protocol. Through an IP address, a computer’s activity can be tracked, its location discovered, and its user identified. Crackers can use an IP address to access a computer though one of its many ports, which regulate the flow of information to the computer.

Invalidated Conviction

A conviction that is no longer legally binding because it has been vacated or reversed by a court.

Investment Fraud

Investment fraud, also known as stock fraud or securities fraud, is a deceptive practice in the stock or commodities markets that induces investors to make purchase or sale decisions on the basis of false information, frequently resulting in losses, in violation of securities laws.