Jointly Undertaken Criminal Activity

A relevant conduct principle addressing conduct in concert with others that allows a defendant to be held accountable for the conduct of others under the guidelines (§1B1.3).


A public official appointed or elected to hear and decide legal matters. Federal district and circuit judges, as well as Supreme Court Justices, are appointed for life.

Judgment and Commitment Order

Often called the “judgment,” a written record of the defendant’s convictions and the sentence the court pronounces.

Juvenile Delinquency Act

The Juvenile Delinquency Act governs juveniles convicted of an offense in federal court. The guidelines do not directly apply to defendants sentenced under the Juvenile Delinquency Act. However, the sentence imposed on a juvenile defendant may not ordinarily be greater than the maximum of the guideline range that would apply to an adult defendant in similar circumstances. (§1B1.12).