The manipulation of code in the device or software for which the code was written. Some prefer the term “cracking” to describe hacking into a machine or program without permission.

Hate Crime Motivation

Chapter Three provides an enhancement if the court determines beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant intentionally selected any victim because of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, disability or sexual orientation of that person (§3A1.1).


The Office of Education and Sentencing Practice at the Commission operates a helpline that provides guidance to stakeholders in the federal criminal justice field. Staffers provide guidance in matters related to guideline application.

Historical Note

A Historical Note, found at the end of each individual guideline, cites each time the guideline has been amended. The text of each amendment is located in Appendix C of the Guidelines Manual.

Home Detention

A program of confinement and supervision that restricts the defendant to his or her place of residence continuously, except for authorized absences. Home detention may be imposed as a condition of probation and supervised release.