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Introduction to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines


Relevant Conduct


Economic Crimes


Multiple Counts of Conviction


Chapter Four - Criminal History



  • Reference Outline: "Restitution in Federal Criminal Cases" by Cathy Goodwin. This article includes a brief overview of the history of restitution, the 5-steps in determining restitution, and recent issues in litigation regarding restitution. (July 2001)
  • Article: "Imposition and Enforcement of Restitution" by Cathy Goodwin. From Federal Probation, volume 64, number 1, June 2000, pp. 62-72. This article discusses legal issues on imposing restitution, including the determination of ability to pay and assets for imposing payment, as well as issues on enforcing restitution orders during supervision and at revocation based on non-payment.(June 2000)
  • Article: "Update on Selected Restitution Issues" by Cathy Goodwin. This article provides expanded guidance and updated case law on the principles discussed in two previous Federal Probation articles on restitution: 1) the December 1998 article that introduced the 5-step analysis to determining victims and harms for restitution, and 2) the June 2000 article on the imposition and enforcement of restitution. (June 2001)
  • Article: "The Imposition of Restitution in Federal Criminal Cases" by Cathy Goodwin. From Federal Probation, volume 62, number 2, December 1998, pages 95-108. Article: "Comparison of the New Calculation of Economic 'Loss' With That of Restitution." by Cathy Goodwin. (May 2002)
  • Quick Quiz on Comparison of Economic "Loss" and Restitution. This quiz is used in conjunction with above article "Comparison of the New Calculation of Economic "Loss" with that of Restitution." (May 2002)
  • Restitution Examples and Analysis prepared by Cathy Goodwin and distributed at the Eleventh Annual National Seminar on the Federal Sentencing Guidelines (May 2002)



Chapter Seven - Violations of Probation and Supervised Release


Amendments to the Sentencing Guidelines