CHAPTER FIVE - DETERMINING THE SENTENCE


PART B - PROBATION


§5B1.3.     Conditions of Probation

(a)       Mandatory Conditions--

(1)       for any offense, the defendant shall not commit another federal, state or local offense (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(a));

(2)       for a felony, the defendant shall (A) make restitution, (B) work in community service, or (C) both, unless the court has imposed a fine, or unless the court finds on the record that extraordinary circumstances exist that would make such a condition plainly unreasonable, in which event the court shall impose one or more of the discretionary conditions set forth under 18 U.S.C. § 3563(b) (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(a)(2));

(3)       for any offense, the defendant shall not unlawfully possess a controlled substance (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(a));

(4)       for a domestic violence crime as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 3561(b) by a defendant convicted of such an offense for the first time, the defendant shall attend a public, private, or non-profit offender rehabilitation program that has been approved by the court, in consultation with a State Coalition Against Domestic Violence or other appropriate experts, if an approved program is available within a 50-mile radius of the legal residence of the defendant (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(a));

(5)       for any offense, the defendant shall refrain from any unlawful use of a controlled substance and submit to one drug test within 15 days of release on probation and at least two periodic drug tests thereafter (as determined by the court) for use of a controlled substance, but the condition stated in this paragraph may be ameliorated or suspended by the court for any individual defendant if the defendant's presentence report or other reliable information indicates a low risk of future substance abuse by the defendant (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(a));

(6)       the defendant shall (A) make restitution in accordance with 18 U.S.C. §§ 2248, 2259, 2264, 2327, 3663, 3663A, and 3664; and (B) pay the assessment imposed in accordance with 18 U.S.C. § 3013;

(7)       the defendant shall notify the court of any material change in the defendant's economic circumstances that might affect the defendant's ability to pay restitution, fines, or special assessments (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(a));

(8)       if the court has imposed a fine, the defendant shall pay the fine or adhere to a court-established payment schedule (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(a));

(9)       (A)       in a state in which the requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (see 42 U.S.C. §§ 16911 and 16913) do not apply, a defendant convicted of a sexual offense as described in 18 U.S.C. § 4042(c)(4) (Pub. L. 105–119, § 115(a)(8), Nov. 26, 1997) shall report the address where the defendant will reside and any subsequent change of residence to the probation officer responsible for supervision, and shall register as a sex offender in any State where the person resides, is employed, carries on a vocation, or is a student; or

(B)       in a state in which the requirements of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply, a sex offender shall (i) register, and keep such registration current, where the offender resides, where the offender is an employee, and where the offender is a student, and for the initial registration, a sex offender also shall register in the jurisdiction in which convicted if such jurisdiction is different from the jurisdiction of residence; (ii) provide information required by 42 U.S.C. § 16914; and (iii) keep such registration current for the full registration period as set forth in 42 U.S.C. § 16915;

(10)     the defendant shall submit to the collection of a DNA sample from the defendant at the direction of the United States Probation Office if the collection of such a sample is authorized pursuant to section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. § 14135a).

(b)      The court may impose other conditions of probation to the extent that such conditions (1) are reasonably related to (A) the nature and circumstances of the offense and the history and characteristics of the defendant; (B) the need for the sentence imposed to reflect the seriousness of the offense, to promote respect for the law, and to provide just punishment for the offense; (C) the need for the sentence imposed to afford adequate deterrence to criminal conduct; (D) the need to protect the public from further crimes of the defendant; and (E) the need to provide the defendant with needed educational or vocational training, medical care, or other correctional treatment in the most effective manner; and (2) involve only such deprivations of liberty or property as are reasonably necessary for the purposes of sentencing indicated in 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a) (see 18 U.S.C. § 3563(b)).

(c)       (Policy Statement) The following "standard" conditions are recommended for probation.  Several of the conditions are expansions of the conditions required by statute:

(1)       the defendant shall not leave the judicial district or other specified geographic area without the permission of the court or probation officer;

(2)       the defendant shall report to the probation officer as directed by the court or probation officer and shall submit a truthful and complete written report within the first five days of each month;

(3)       the defendant shall answer truthfully all inquiries by the probation officer and follow the instructions of the probation officer;

(4)       the defendant shall support the defendant's dependents and meet other family responsibilities (including, but not limited to, complying with the terms of any court order or administrative process pursuant to the law of a state, the District of Columbia, or any other possession or territory of the United States requiring payments by the defendant for the support and maintenance of any child or of a child and the parent with whom the child is living);

(5)       the defendant shall work regularly at a lawful occupation unless excused by the probation officer for schooling, training, or other acceptable reasons;

(6)       the defendant shall notify the probation officer at least ten days prior to any change of residence or employment;

(7)       the defendant shall refrain from excessive use of alcohol and shall not purchase, possess, use, distribute, or administer any controlled substance, or any paraphernalia related to any controlled substance, except as prescribed by a physician;

(8)       the defendant shall not frequent places where controlled substances are illegally sold, used, distributed, or administered, or other places specified by the court;

(9)       the defendant shall not associate with any persons engaged in criminal activity, and shall not associate with any person convicted of a felony unless granted permission to do so by the probation officer;

(10)     the defendant shall permit a probation officer to visit the defendant at any time at home or elsewhere and shall permit confiscation of any contraband observed in plain view by the probation officer;

(11)     the defendant shall notify the probation officer within seventy-two hours of being arrested or questioned by a law enforcement officer;

(12)     the defendant shall not enter into any agreement to act as an informer or a special agent of a law enforcement agency without the permission of the court;

(13)     as directed by the probation officer, the defendant shall notify third parties of risks that may be occasioned by the defendant's criminal record or personal history or characteristics, and shall permit the probation officer to make such notifications and to confirm the defendant's compliance with such notification requirement;

(14)     the defendant shall pay the special assessment imposed or adhere to a court-ordered installment schedule for the payment of the special assessment.

(d)      (Policy Statement) The following "special" conditions of probation are recommended in the circumstances described and, in addition, may otherwise be appropriate in particular cases:

(1)       Possession of Weapons

If the instant conviction is for a felony, or if the defendant was previously convicted of a felony or used a firearm or other dangerous weapon in the course of the instant offense -- a condition prohibiting the defendant from possessing a firearm or other dangerous weapon.

(2)       Debt Obligations

If an installment schedule of payment of restitution or a fine is imposed -- a condition prohibiting the defendant from incurring new credit charges or opening additional lines of credit without approval of the probation officer unless the defendant is in compliance with the payment schedule.

(3)       Access to Financial Information

If the court imposes an order of restitution, forfeiture, or notice to victims, or orders the defendant to pay a fine -- a condition requiring the defendant to provide the probation officer access to any requested financial information.

(4)       Substance Abuse Program Participation

If the court has reason to believe that the defendant is an abuser of narcotics, other controlled substances or alcohol -- a condition requiring the defendant to participate in a program approved by the United States Probation Office for substance abuse, which program may include testing to determine whether the defendant has reverted to the use of drugs or alcohol.

(5)       Mental Health Program Participation

If the court has reason to believe that the defendant is in need of psychological or psychiatric treatment -- a condition requiring that the defendant participate in a mental health program approved by the United States Probation Office.

(6)       Deportation

If (A) the defendant and the United States entered into a stipulation of deportation pursuant to section 238(c)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. § 1228(c)(5)*); or (B) in the absence of a stipulation of deportation, if, after notice and hearing pursuant to such section, the Attorney General demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that the alien is deportable -- a condition ordering deportation by a United States district court or a United States magistrate judge.

*So in original.  Probably should be 8 U.S.C. § 1228(d)(5).

(7)       Sex Offenses

If the instant offense of conviction is a sex offense, as defined in Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §5D1.2 (Term of Supervised Release) --

(A)       A condition requiring the defendant to participate in a program approved by the United States Probation Office for the treatment and monitoring of sex offenders.

(B)       A condition limiting the use of a computer or an interactive computer service in cases in which the defendant used such items.

(C)       A condition requiring the defendant to submit to a search, at any time, with or without a warrant, and by any law enforcement or probation officer, of the defendant's person and any property, house, residence, vehicle, papers, computer, other electronic communication or data storage devices or media, and effects, upon reasonable suspicion concerning a violation of a condition of probation or unlawful conduct by the defendant, or by any probation officer in the lawful discharge of the officer's supervision functions.

(e)       Additional Conditions (Policy Statement)

The following "special conditions" may be appropriate on a case-by-case basis:

(1)       Community Confinement

Residence in a community treatment center, halfway house or similar facility may be imposed as a condition of probation.  See §5F1.1 (Community Confinement).

(2)       Home Detention

Home detention may be imposed as a condition of probation but only as a substitute for imprisonment. See §5F1.2 (Home Detention).

(3)       Community Service

Community service may be imposed as a condition of probation.  See §5F1.3 (Community Service).

(4)       Occupational Restrictions

Occupational restrictions may be imposed as a condition of probation.  See §5F1.5 (Occupational Restrictions).

(5)       Curfew

A condition imposing a curfew may be imposed if the court concludes that restricting the defendant to his place of residence during evening and nighttime hours is necessary to provide just punishment for the offense, to protect the public from crimes that the defendant might commit during those hours, or to assist in the rehabilitation of the defendant.  Electronic monitoring may be used as a means of surveillance to ensure compliance with a curfew order.

(6)       Intermittent Confinement

Intermittent confinement (custody for intervals of time) may be ordered as a condition of probation during the first year of probation.  See §5F1.8 (Intermittent Confinement).


Commentary

Application Note:

1.      Application of Subsection (a)(9)(A) and (B).—Some jurisdictions continue to register sex offenders pursuant to the sex offender registry in place prior to July 27, 2006, the date of enactment of the Adam Walsh Act, which contained the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.  In such a jurisdiction, subsection (a)(9)(A) will apply.  In a jurisdiction that has implemented the requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act, subsection (a)(9)(B) will apply.  (See 42 U.S.C. §§ 16911 and 16913.)

Historical Note:  Effective November 1, 1987.  Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 273, 274, and 302); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 569); November 1, 1998 (see Appendix C, amendment 584); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 605); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 615); November 1, 2002 (see Appendix C, amendment 644); November 1, 2004 (see Appendix C, amendment 664); November 1, 2007 (see Appendix C, amendments 701 and 711); November 1, 2009 (see Appendix C, amendment 733).