2012 GUIDELINES MANUAL
CHAPTER TWO - OFFENSE CONDUCT
PART P - OFFENSES INVOLVING PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES
§2P1.1. Escape, Instigating or Assisting Escape
(a) Base Offense Level:
(1) 13, if the custody or confinement is by virtue of an arrest on a charge of felony, or conviction of any offense;
(2) 8, otherwise.
(b) Specific Offense Characteristics
(1) If the use or the threat of force against any person was involved, increase by 5 levels.
(2) If the defendant escaped from non-secure custody and returned voluntarily within ninety-six hours, decrease the offense level under §2P1.1(a)(1) by 7 levels or the offense level under §2P1.1(a)(2) by 4 levels. Provided, however, that this reduction shall not apply if the defendant, while away from the facility, committed any federal, state, or local offense punishable by a term of imprisonment of one year or more.
(3) If the defendant escaped from the non-secure custody of a community corrections center, community treatment center, "halfway house," or similar facility, and subsection (b)(2) is not applicable, decrease the offense level under subsection (a)(1) by 4 levels or the offense level under subsection (a)(2) by 2 levels. Provided, however, that this reduction shall not apply if the defendant, while away from the facility, committed any federal, state, or local offense punishable by a term of imprisonment of one year or more.
(4) If the defendant was a law enforcement or correctional officer or employee, or an employee of the Department of Justice, at the time of the offense, increase by 2 levels.
Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 751, 752, 755; 28 U.S.C. § 1826. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).
1. "Non-secure custody" means custody with no significant physical restraint (e.g., where a defendant walked away from a work detail outside the security perimeter of an institution; where a defendant failed to return to any institution from a pass or unescorted furlough; or where a defendant escaped from an institution with no physical perimeter barrier).
2. "Returned voluntarily" includes voluntarily returning to the institution or turning one's self in to a law enforcement authority as an escapee (not in connection with an arrest or other charges).
3. If the adjustment in subsection (b)(4) applies, no adjustment is to be made under §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).
4. If death or bodily injury resulted, an upward departure may be warranted. See Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).
5. Criminal history points under Chapter Four, Part A (Criminal History) are to be determined independently of the application of this guideline. For example, in the case of a defendant serving a one-year sentence of imprisonment at the time of the escape, criminal history points from §4A1.1(b) (for the sentence being served at the time of the escape) and §4A1.1(d) (custody status) would be applicable.
6. If the adjustment in subsection (b)(1) applies as a result of conduct that involves an official victim, do not apply §3A1.2 (Official Victim).
Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 200 and 201); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 341); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 406); November 1, 2010 (see Appendix C, amendment 747).