2012 GUIDELINES MANUAL
CHAPTER TWO - OFFENSE CONDUCT
PART M - OFFENSES INVOLVING NATIONAL DEFENSE AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
3. ESPIONAGE AND RELATED OFFENSES
§2M3.3. Transmitting National Defense Information; Disclosure of Classified Cryptographic Information; Unauthorized Disclosure to a Foreign Government or a Communist Organization of Classified Information by Government Employee; Unauthorized Receipt of Classified Information
(a) Base Offense Level:
(1) 29, if top secret information; or
(2) 24, otherwise.
Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 793(d), (e), (g), 798; 50 U.S.C. § 783.
1. See Commentary to §2M3.1.
2. If the defendant was convicted of 18 U.S.C. § 793(d) or (e) for the willful transmission or communication of intangible information with reason to believe that it could be used to the injury of the United States or the advantage of a foreign nation, apply §2M3.2.
Background: The statutes covered in this section proscribe willfully transmitting or communicating to a person not entitled to receive it a document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note relating to the national defense. Proof that the item was communicated with reason to believe that it could be used to the injury of the United States or the advantage of a foreign nation is required only where intangible information is communicated under 18 U.S.C. § 793(d) or (e).
This section also covers statutes that proscribe the disclosure of classified information concerning cryptographic or communication intelligence to the detriment of the United States or for the benefit of a foreign government, the unauthorized disclosure to a foreign government or a communist organization of classified information by a government employee, and the unauthorized receipt of classified information.
Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481); November 1, 2010 (see Appendix C, amendment 746).