CHAPTER FIVE - DETERMINING THE SENTENCE


PART K - DEPARTURES


1.      SUBSTANTIAL ASSISTANCE TO AUTHORITIES


§5K1.1.     Substantial Assistance to Authorities  (Policy Statement)

Upon motion of the government stating that the defendant has provided substantial assistance in the investigation or prosecution of another person who has committed an offense, the court may depart from the guidelines.

(a)       The appropriate reduction shall be determined by the court for reasons stated that may include, but are not limited to, consideration of the following:

(1)       the court's evaluation of the significance and usefulness of the defendant's assistance, taking into consideration the government's evaluation of the assistance rendered;

(2)       the truthfulness, completeness, and reliability of any information or testimony provided by the defendant;

(3)       the nature and extent of the defendant's assistance;

(4)       any injury suffered, or any danger or risk of injury to the defendant or his family resulting from his assistance;

(5)       the timeliness of the defendant's assistance.


Commentary

Application Notes:

1.      Under circumstances set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 3553(e) and 28 U.S.C. § 994(n), as amended, substantial assistance in the investigation or prosecution of another person who has committed an offense may justify a sentence below a statutorily required minimum sentence.

2.      The sentencing reduction for assistance to authorities shall be considered independently of any reduction for acceptance of responsibility.  Substantial assistance is directed to the investigation and prosecution of criminal activities by persons other than the defendant, while acceptance of responsibility is directed to the defendant's affirmative recognition of responsibility for his own conduct.

3.      Substantial weight should be given to the government's evaluation of the extent of the defendant's assistance, particularly where the extent and value of the assistance are difficult to ascertain.

Background:  A defendant's assistance to authorities in the investigation of criminal activities has been recognized in practice and by statute as a mitigating sentencing factor.  The nature, extent, and significance of assistance can involve a broad spectrum of conduct that must be evaluated by the court on an individual basis.  Latitude is, therefore, afforded the sentencing judge to reduce a sentence based upon variable relevant factors, including those listed above.  The sentencing judge must, however, state the reasons for reducing a sentence under this section.  18 U.S.C. § 3553(c).  The court may elect to provide its reasons to the defendant in camera and in writing under seal for the safety of the defendant or to avoid disclosure of an ongoing investigation.

Historical Note:  Effective November 1, 1987.  Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 290).