CHAPTER TWO - OFFENSE CONDUCT


PART K - OFFENSES INVOLVING PUBLIC SAFETY


1.      EXPLOSIVES AND ARSON


§2K1.4.     Arson; Property Damage by Use of Explosives

(a)      Base Offense Level (Apply the Greatest):

(1)       24, if the offense (A) created a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to any person other than a participant in the offense, and that risk was created knowingly; or (B) involved the destruction or attempted destruction of a dwelling, an airport, an aircraft, a mass transportation facility, a mass transportation vehicle, a maritime facility, a vessel, or a vessel's cargo, a public transportation system, a state or government facility, an infrastructure facility, or a place of public use;

(2)       20, if the offense (A) created a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to any person other than a participant in the offense; (B) involved the destruction or attempted destruction of a structure other than (i) a dwelling, or (ii) an airport, an aircraft, a mass transportation facility, a mass transportation vehicle, a maritime facility, a vessel, or a vessel's cargo, a public transportation system, a state or government facility, an infrastructure facility, or a place of public use; or (C) endangered (i) a dwelling, (ii) a structure other than a dwelling, or (iii) an airport, an aircraft, a mass transportation facility, a mass transportation vehicle, a maritime facility, a vessel, or a vessel's cargo, a public transportation system, a state or government facility, an infrastructure facility, or a place of public use;

(3)       16, if the offense involved the destruction of or tampering with aids to maritime navigation; or

(4)       2 plus the offense level from §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud).

(b)      Specific Offense Characteristics

(1)       If the offense was committed to conceal another offense, increase by 2 levels.

(2)       If the base offense level is not determined under (a)(4), and the offense occurred on a national cemetery, increase by 2 levels.

(c)      Cross Reference

(1)       If death resulted, or the offense was intended to cause death or serious bodily injury, apply the most analogous guideline from Chapter Two, Part A (Offenses Against the Person) if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.


Commentary

Statutory Provisions:  18 U.S.C. §§ 32(a), (b), 33, 81, 844(f), (h) (only in the case of an offense committed prior to November 18, 1988), (i), 1153, 1855, 1992(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(4), 2275, 2282A, 2282B, 2291, 2332a, 2332f; 49 U.S.C. § 60123(b).  For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1.      Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline:

"Aids to maritime navigation" means any device external to a vessel intended to assist the navigator to determine position or save course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation.

"Explosives" includes any explosive, explosive material, or destructive device.

"Maritime facility" means any structure or facility of any kind located in, on, under, or adjacent to any waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and used, operated, or maintained by a public or private entity, including any contiguous or adjoining property under common ownership or operation.

"National cemetery" means a cemetery (A) established under section 2400 of title 38, United States Code; or (B) under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force, or the Secretary of the Interior.

"Mass transportation" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1992(d)(7).

"State or government facility", "infrastructure facility", "place of public use", and "public transportation system" have the meaning given those terms in 18 U.S.C. § 2332f(e)(3), (5), (6), and (7), respectively.

"Vessel" includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water.

2.      Risk of Death or Serious Bodily Injury. Creating a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury includes creating that risk to fire fighters and other emergency and law enforcement personnel who respond to or investigate an offense.

3.      Upward Departure Provision.—If bodily injury resulted, an upward departure may be warranted.  See Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).

Background:  Subsection (b)(2) implements the directive to the Commission in section 2 of Public Law 105–101.

Historical Note:  Effective November 1, 1987.  Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 182, 184, and 185); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 330); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 404); November 1, 1998 (see
Appendix C, amendment 576); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617); November 1, 2002 (see Appendix C, amendment 637); November 1, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 655); November 1, 2007 (see Appendix C, amendments 699 and 700).