CHAPTER TWO - OFFENSE CONDUCT


PART G - OFFENSES INVOLVING COMMERCIAL SEX ACTS, SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF MINORS, AND OBSCENITY


2.      SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF A MINOR


§2G2.6.     Child Exploitation Enterprises

(a)       Base Offense Level: 35

(b)      Specific Offense Characteristics

(1)       If a victim (A) had not attained the age of 12 years, increase by 4 levels; or (B) had attained the age of 12 years but had not attained the age of 16 years, increase by 2 levels.

(2)       If (A) the defendant was a parent, relative, or legal guardian of a minor victim; or (B) a minor victim was otherwise in the custody, care, or supervisory control of the defendant, increase by 2 levels.

(3)       If the offense involved conduct described in 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a) or (b), increase by 2 levels.

(4)       If a computer or an interactive computer service was used in furtherance of the offense, increase by 2 levels.


Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. § 2252A(g).

Application Notes:

1.      Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline:

"Computer" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1030(e)(1).

"Interactive computer service" has the meaning given that term in section 230(e)(2) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. § 230(f)(2)).

"Minor" means (A) an individual who had not attained the age of 18 years; (B) an individual, whether fictitious or not, who a law enforcement officer represented to a participant (i) had not attained the age of 18 years; and (ii) could be provided for the purposes of engaging in sexually explicit conduct; or (C) an undercover law enforcement officer who represented to a participant that the officer had not attained the age of 18 years.

2.      Application of Subsection (b)(2).—

(A)     Custody, Care, or Supervisory Control.—Subsection (b)(2) is intended to have broad application and includes offenses involving a victim less than 18 years of age entrusted to the defendant, whether temporarily or permanently.  For example, teachers, day care providers, baby-sitters, or other temporary caretakers are among those who would be subject to this enhancement.  In determining whether to apply this enhancement, the court should look to the actual relationship that existed between the defendant and the minor and not simply to the legal status of the defendant-minor relationship.

(B)     Inapplicability of Chapter Three Adjustment.—If the enhancement under subsection (b)(2) applies, do not apply §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

3.      Application of Subsection (b)(3).—For purposes of subsection (b)(3), "conduct described in 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a) or (b)" is: (i) using force against the minor; (ii) threatening or placing the minor in fear that any person will be subject to death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping; (iii) rendering the minor unconscious; or (iv) administering by force or threat of force, or without the knowledge or permission of the minor, a drug, intoxicant, or other similar substance and thereby substantially impairing the ability of the minor to appraise or control conduct.  This provision would apply, for example, if any dangerous weapon was used or brandished, or in a case in which the ability of the minor to appraise or control conduct was substantially impaired by drugs or alcohol.

Historical Note:  Effective November 1, 2007 (see Appendix C, amendment 701).