CHAPTER TWO - OFFENSE CONDUCT


PART M - OFFENSES INVOLVING NATIONAL DEFENSE AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

3.ESPIONAGE AND RELATED OFFENSES

§2M3.2. Gathering National Defense Information

(a)Base Offense Level:

(1)35, if top secret information was gathered; or

(2)30, otherwise.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 793(a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (g), 1030(a)(1). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1.See Commentary to §2M3.1.

2.If the defendant is convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 793(d) or (e), §2M3.3 may apply. See Commentary to §2M3.3.

Background. The statutes covered in this section proscribe diverse forms of obtaining and transmitting national defense information with intent or reason to believe the information would injure the United States or be used to the advantage of a foreign government.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 654).