CHAPTER TWO - OFFENSE CONDUCT


PART L - OFFENSES INVOLVING IMMIGRATION, NATURALIZATION, AND PASSPORTS


2.NATURALIZATION AND PASSPORTS

§2L2.2. Fraudulently Acquiring Documents Relating to Naturalization, Citizenship, or Legal Resident Status for Own Use; False Personation or Fraudulent Marriage by Alien to Evade Immigration Law; Fraudulently Acquiring or Improperly Using a United States Passport

(a)Base Offense Level: 8

(b)Specific Offense Characteristics

(1)If the defendant is an unlawful alien who has been deported (voluntarily or involuntarily) on one or more occasions prior to the instant offense, increase by 2 levels.

(2)If the defendant committed any part of the instant offense after sustaining (A) a conviction for a felony immigration and naturalization offense, increase by 2 levels; or (B) two (or more) convictions for felony immigration and naturalization offenses, each such conviction arising out of a separate prosecution, increase by 4 levels.

(3)If the defendant fraudulently obtained or used (A) a United States passport, increase by 4 levels; or (B) a foreign passport, increase by 2 levels.

(c)Cross Reference

(1)If the defendant used a passport or visa in the commission or attempted commission of a felony offense, other than an offense involving violation of the immigration laws, apply --

(A)§2X1.1 (Attempt, Solicitation, or Conspiracy) in respect to that felony offense, if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above; or

(B)if death resulted, the most analogous offense guideline from Chapter Two, Part A, Subpart 1 (Homicide), if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 8 U.S.C. §§ 1160(b)(7)(A), 1185(a)(3), (5), 1325(c), (d); 18 U.S.C. §§ 911, 1015, 1028, 1423-1426, 1542-1544, 1546.

Application Notes:

1.Definition.—For purposes of this guideline, "immigration and naturalization offense" means any offense covered by Chapter Two, Part L.

2.Application of Subsection (b)(2).—Prior felony conviction(s) resulting in an adjustment under subsection (b)(2) are also counted for purposes of determining criminal history points pursuant to Chapter Four, Part A (Criminal History).

3.Application of Subsection (b)(3).—The term "used" is to be construed broadly and includes the attempted renewal of previously-issued passports.

4.Multiple Counts.—For the purposes of Chapter Three, Part D (Multiple Counts), a count of conviction for unlawfully entering or remaining in the United States covered by §2L1.2 (Unlawfully Entering or Remaining in the United States) arising from the same course of conduct as the count of conviction covered by this guideline shall be considered a closely related count to the count of conviction covered by this guideline, and therefore is to be grouped with the count of conviction covered by this guideline.

5.Upward Departure Provision.—If the defendant fraudulently obtained or used a United States passport for the purpose of entering the United States to engage in terrorist activity, an upward departure may be warranted. See Application Note 4 of the Commentary to §3A1.4 (Terrorism).

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 39); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 196); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 450); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 524); May 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 544); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 563); November 1, 2004 (see Appendix C, amendment 671); November 1, 2006 (see Appendix C, amendment 691); November 1, 2010 (see Appendix C, amendment 746).