2005 Federal Sentencing Guidelines
Chapter 2 - PART M - OFFENSES INVOLVING NATIONAL DEFENSE AND WEAPONS OF
§2M5.1. Evasion of Export Controls;
Financial Transactions with Countries Supporting International Terrorism
(a) Base Offense Level (Apply the greater):
(1) 26, if (A) national security
controls or controls relating to the proliferation of nuclear, biological,
or chemical weapons or materials were evaded; or (B) the offense involved
a financial transaction with a country supporting international terrorism;
(2) 14, otherwise.
Statutory Provisions: 18
U.S.C. § 2332d; 50 U.S.C. App. §§ 2401-2420.
1. In the case of a violation during time of war or armed conflict, an upward
departure may be warranted.
2. In determining the sentence within the applicable guideline range, the
court may consider the degree to which the violation threatened a security
interest of the United States, the volume of commerce involved, the extent
of planning or sophistication, and whether there were multiple occurrences.
Where such factors are present in an extreme form, a departure from the guidelines
may be warranted. See Chapter
Five, Part K (Departures).
3. In addition to the provisions for imprisonment, 50 U.S.C. App.
§ 2410 contains provisions for criminal fines and forfeiture as well
as civil penalties. The maximum fine for individual defendants is $250,000.
In the case of corporations, the maximum fine is five times the value of the
exports involved or $1 million, whichever is greater. When national security
controls are violated, in addition to any other sanction, the defendant is
subject to forfeiture of any interest in, security of, or claim against: any
goods or tangible items that were the subject of the violation; property used
to export or attempt to export that was the subject of the violation; and any
proceeds obtained directly or indirectly as a result of the violation.
4. For purposes of subsection (a)(1)(B), "a country supporting international
terrorism" means a country designated under section 6(j) of the Export Administration
Act (50 U.S.C. App. 2405).
Historical Note: Effective
November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 2001 (see Appendix
C, amendment 633); November 1, 2002 (see Appendix
C, amendment 637).