2005 Federal Sentencing Guidelines


Chapter 2 - PART K - OFFENSES INVOLVING PUBLIC SAFETY

§2K1.3. Unlawful Receipt, Possession, or Transportation of Explosive Materials; Prohibited Transactions Involving Explosive Materials

(a) Base Offense Level (Apply the Greatest):

(1) 24, if the defendant committed any part of the instant offense subsequent to sustaining at least two felony convictions of either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense;

(2) 20, if the defendant committed any part of the instant offense subsequent to sustaining one felony conviction of either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense;

(3) 18, if the defendant was convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 842(p)(2);

(4) 16, if the defendant (A) was a prohibited person at the time the defendant committed the instant offense; or (B) knowingly distributed explosive materials to a prohibited person; or

(5) 12, otherwise.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense involved twenty-five pounds or more of explosive materials, increase as follows:

  Weight of Explosive Material Increase in Level
(A) At least 25 but less than 100 lbs. add 1
(B) At least 100 but less than 250 lbs. add 2
(C) At least 250 but less than 500 lbs. add 3
(D) At least 500 but less than 1000 lbs. add 4
(E) 1000 lbs. or more add 5.

(2) If the offense involved any explosive material that the defendant knew or had reason to believe was stolen, increase by 2 levels.

Provided, that the cumulative offense level determined above shall not exceed level 29.

(3) If the defendant (A) was convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 842(p)(2); or (B) used or possessed any explosive material in connection with another felony offense; or possessed or transferred any explosive material with knowledge, intent, or reason to believe that it would be used or possessed in connection with another felony offense, increase by 4 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 18, increase to level 18.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the defendant (A) was convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 842(p)(2); or (B) used or possessed any explosive material in connection with the commission or attempted commission of another offense, or possessed or transferred any explosive material with knowledge or intent that it would be used or possessed in connection with another offense, apply --

(A) §2X1.1 (Attempt, Solicitation, or Conspiracy) in respect to that other offense if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above; or

(B) if death resulted, the most analogous offense guideline from Chapter Two, Part A, Subpart 1 (Homicide), if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

Commentary
Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 842(a)-(e), (h), (i), (l)-(o), (p)(2), 844(d), (g), 1716; 26 U.S.C. § 5685.
Application Notes:
1. "Explosive material(s)" include explosives, blasting agents, and detonators. See 18 U.S.C. § 841(c). "Explosives" is defined at 18 U.S.C. § 844(j). A destructive device, defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions), may contain explosive materials. Where the conduct charged in the count of which the defendant was convicted establishes that the offense involved a destructive device, apply §2K2.1 (Unlawful Receipt, Possession, or Transportation of Firearms or Ammunition; Prohibited Transactions Involving Firearms or Ammunition) if the resulting offense level is greater.
2. For purposes of this guideline:
"Controlled substance offense" has the meaning given that term in §4B1.2(b) and Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §4B1.2 (Definitions of Terms Used in Section 4B1.1).
"Crime of violence" has the meaning given that term in §4B1.2(a) and Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §4B1.2.
"Felony conviction" means a prior adult federal or state conviction for an offense punishable by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding one year, regardless of whether such offense is specifically designated as a felony and regardless of the actual sentence imposed. A conviction for an offense committed at age eighteen years or older is an adult conviction. A conviction for an offense committed prior to age eighteen years is an adult conviction if it is classified as an adult conviction under the laws of the jurisdiction in which the defendant was convicted (e.g., a federal conviction for an offense committed prior to the defendant’s eighteenth birthday is an adult conviction if the defendant was expressly proceeded against as an adult).
3. For purposes of subsection (a)(4), "prohibited person" means any person described in 18 U.S.C. § 842(i).
4. "Felony offense," as used in subsection (b)(3), means any offense (federal, state, or local) punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year, whether or not a criminal charge was brought, or conviction obtained.
5. For purposes of calculating the weight of explosive materials under subsection (b)(1), include only the weight of the actual explosive material and the weight of packaging material that is necessary for the use or detonation of the explosives. Exclude the weight of any other shipping or packaging materials. For example, the paper and fuse on a stick of dynamite would be included; the box that the dynamite was shipped in would not be included.
6. For purposes of calculating the weight of explosive materials under subsection (b)(1), count only those explosive materials that were unlawfully sought to be obtained, unlawfully possessed, or unlawfully distributed, including any explosive material that a defendant attempted to obtain by making a false statement.
7. If the defendant is convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 842(h) (offense involving stolen explosive materials), and is convicted of no other offenses subject to this guideline, do not apply the adjustment in subsection (b)(2) because the base offense level itself takes such conduct into account.
8. Under subsection (c)(1), the offense level for the underlying offense (which may be a federal, state, or local offense) is to be determined under §2X1.1 (Attempt, Solicitation, or Conspiracy) or, if death results, under the most analogous guideline from Chapter Two, Part A, Subpart 1 (Homicide).
9. For purposes of applying subsection (a)(1) or (2), use only those felony convictions that receive criminal history points under §4A1.1(a), (b), or (c). In addition, for purposes of applying subsection (a)(1), use only those felony convictions that are counted separately under §4A1.1(a), (b), or (c). See §4A1.2(a)(2); §4A1.2, comment. (n.3).
Prior felony conviction(s) resulting in an increased base offense level under subsection (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(4) are also counted for purposes of determining criminal history points pursuant to Chapter Four, Part A (Criminal History).
10. An upward departure may be warranted in any of the following circumstances: (1) the quantity of explosive materials significantly exceeded 1000 pounds; (2) the explosive materials were of a nature more volatile or dangerous than dynamite or conventional powder explosives (e.g., plastic explosives); (3) the defendant knowingly distributed explosive materials to a person under twenty-one years of age; or (4) the offense posed a substantial risk of death or bodily injury to multiple individuals.
11. As used in subsections (b)(3) and (c)(1), "another felony offense" and "another offense" refer to offenses other than explosives or firearms possession or trafficking offenses. However, where the defendant used or possessed a firearm or explosive to facilitate another firearms or explosives offense (e.g., the defendant used or possessed a firearm to protect the delivery of an unlawful shipment of explosives), an upward departure under §5K2.6 (Weapons and Dangerous Instrumentalities) may be warranted.
In addition, for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(A), "that other offense" means, with respect to an offense under 18 U.S.C. § 842(p)(2), the underlying Federal crime of violence.
Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 183); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 373); November 1, 1992 (see, Appendix C, amendment 471); November 1, 1993 (see, Appendix C, amendment 478); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 568); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendments 629 and 630); November 1, 2002 (see Appendix C, amendment 646); November 1, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 655).