2001 Federal Sentencing Guideline Manual


CHAPTER TWO - OFFENSE CONDUCT

Introductory Commentary

Chapter Two pertains to offense conduct. The chapter is organized by offenses and divided into parts and related sections that may cover one statute or many. Each offense has a corresponding base offense level and may have one or more specific offense characteristics that adjust the offense level upward or downward. Certain factors relevant to the offense that are not covered in specific guidelines in Chapter Two are set forth in Chapter Three, Parts A (Victim-Related Adjustments), B (Role in the Offense), and C (Obstruction); Chapter Four, Part B (Career Offenders and Criminal Livelihood); and Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987.

PART A - OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON

1. HOMICIDE

§2A1.1. First Degree Murder

(a) Base Offense Level: 43

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 1111, 2113(e), 2118(c)(2); 21 U.S.C. § 848(e). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. The Commission has concluded that in the absence of capital punishment life imprisonment is the appropriate punishment for premeditated killing. However, this guideline also applies when death results from the commission of certain felonies. Life imprisonment is not necessarily appropriate in all such situations. For example, if in robbing a bank, the defendant merely passed a note to the teller, as a result of which she had a heart attack and died, a sentence of life imprisonment clearly would not be appropriate.

If the defendant did not cause the death intentionally or knowingly, a downward departure may be warranted. The extent of the departure should be based upon the defendant’s state of mind (e.g., recklessness or negligence), the degree of risk inherent in the conduct, and the nature of the underlying offense conduct. However, the Commission does not envision that departure below that specified in §2A1.2 (Second Degree Murder) is likely to be appropriate. Also, because death obviously is an aggravating factor, it necessarily would be inappropriate to impose a sentence at a level below that which the guideline for the underlying offense requires in the absence of death.

2. If the defendant is convicted under 21 U.S.C. § 848(e), a sentence of death may be imposed under the specific provisions contained in that statute. This guideline applies when a sentence of death is not imposed.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 82); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 310); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 476).

§2A1.2. Second Degree Murder

(a) Base Offense Level: 33

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. § 1111. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Background: The maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute for second degree murder is life.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987.

§2A1.3. Voluntary Manslaughter

(a) Base Offense Level: 25

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. § 1112. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Background: The maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute for voluntary manslaughter is ten years.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987.

§2A1.4. Involuntary Manslaughter

(a) Base Offense Level:

(1) 10, if the conduct was criminally negligent; or

(2) 14, if the conduct was reckless.

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. § 1112. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Reckless" refers to a situation in which the defendant was aware of the risk created by his conduct and the risk was of such a nature and degree that to disregard that risk constituted a gross deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would exercise in such a situation. The term thus includes all, or nearly all, convictions for involuntary manslaughter under 18 U.S.C. § 1112. A homicide resulting from driving, or similarly dangerous actions, while under the influence of alcohol or drugs ordinarily should be treated as reckless.

2. "Criminally negligent" refers to conduct that involves a gross deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would exercise under the circumstances, but which is not reckless. Offenses with this characteristic usually will be encountered as assimilative crimes.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987.

§2A1.5. Conspiracy or Solicitation to Commit Murder

(a) Base Offense Level: 28

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the offense involved the offer or the receipt of anything of pecuniary value for undertaking the murder, increase by 4 levels.

(c) Cross References

(1) If the offense resulted in the death of a victim, apply §2A1.1 (First Degree Murder).

(2) If the offense resulted in an attempted murder or assault with intent to commit murder, apply §2A2.1 (Assault with Intent to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 351(d), 371, 373, 1117, 1751(d).

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 311).

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2. ASSAULT

§2A2.1. Assault with Intent to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder

(a) Base Offense Level:

(1) 28, if the object of the offense would have constituted first degree murder; or

(2) 22, otherwise.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) (A) If the victim sustained permanent or life-threatening bodily injury, increase by 4 levels; (B) if the victim sustained serious bodily injury, increase by 2 levels; or (C) if the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (A) and (B), increase by 3 levels.

(2) If the offense involved the offer or the receipt of anything of pecuniary value for undertaking the murder, increase by 4 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 113(a)(1), 351(c), 1113, 1116(a), 1751(c). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Definitions of "serious bodily injury" and "permanent or life-threatening bodily injury" are found in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

2. "First degree murder," as used in subsection (a)(1), means conduct that, if committed within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, would constitute first degree murder under 18 U.S.C. § 1111.

3. If the offense created a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to more than one person, an upward departure may be warranted.

Background: This section applies to the offenses of assault with intent to commit murder and attempted murder. An attempted manslaughter, or assault with intent to commit manslaughter, is covered under §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault).

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 83 and 84); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 311); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 391); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534).

§2A2.2. Aggravated Assault

(a) Base Offense Level: 15

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the assault involved more than minimal planning, increase by 2 levels.

(2) (A) If a firearm was discharged, increase by 5 levels; (B) if a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was otherwise used, increase by 4 levels; (C) if a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was brandished or its use was threatened, increase by 3 levels.

(3) If the victim sustained bodily injury, increase the offense level according to the seriousness of the injury:

  Degree of Bodily Injury Increase in Level
(A) Bodily Injury add 2
(B) Serious Bodily Injury add 4
(C) Permanent or Life-Threatening
Bodily Injury
add 6
(D) If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (A) and (B), add 3 levels; or
(E) If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (B) and (C), add 5 levels.

Provided, however, that the cumulative adjustments from (2) and (3) shall not exceed 9 levels.

(4) If the assault was motivated by a payment or offer of money or other thing of value, increase by 2 levels.

(5)If the offense involved the violation of a court protection order, increase by 2 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 111, 112, 113(a)(2), (3), (6), 114, 115(a), (b)(1), 351(e), 1751(e). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline:

"Aggravated assault" means a felonious assault that involved (A) a dangerous weapon with intent to cause bodily injury (i.e., not merely to frighten) with that weapon; (B) serious bodily injury; or (C) an intent to commit another felony.

"Brandished," "bodily injury," "firearm," "otherwise used," "permanent or life-threatening bodily injury," and "serious bodily injury," have the meaning given those terms in §1B1.1 (Application Instructions), Application Note 1.

"Dangerous weapon" has the meaning given that term in §1B1.1, Application Note 1, and includes any instrument that is not ordinarily used as a weapon (e.g., a car, a chair, or an ice pick) if such an instrument is involved in the offense with the intent to commit bodily injury.

2. Application of Subsection (b)(2).—In a case involving a dangerous weapon with intent to cause bodily injury, the court shall apply both the base offense level and subsection (b)(2).

3. More than Minimal Planning.—For purposes of subsection (b)(1), "more than minimal planning" means more planning than is typical for commission of the offense in a simple form. "More than minimal planning" also exists if significant affirmative steps were taken to conceal the offense, other than conduct to which §3C1.1 (Obstructing or Impeding the Administration of Justice) applies. For example, waiting to commit the offense when no witnesses were present would not alone constitute more than minimal planning. By contrast, luring the victim to a specific location or wearing a ski mask to prevent identification would constitute more than minimal planning.

Background: This guideline covers felonious assaults that are more serious than minor assaults because of the presence of an aggravating factor, i.e., serious bodily injury, the involvement of a dangerous weapon with intent to cause bodily injury, or the intent to commit another felony. Such offenses occasionally may involve planning or be committed for hire. Consequently, the structure follows §2A2.1 (Assault with Intent to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder). This guideline also covers attempted manslaughter and assault with intent to commit manslaughter. Assault with intent to commit murder is covered by §2A2.1. Assault with intent to commit rape is covered by §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse).

An assault that involves the presence of a dangerous weapon is aggravated in form when the presence of the dangerous weapon is coupled with the intent to cause bodily injury. In such a case, the base offense level and the weapon enhancement in subsection (b)(2) take into account different aspects of the offense, even if application of the base offense level and the weapon enhancement is based on the same conduct.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 85 and 86); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 311); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 549); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 614).

§2A2.3. Minor Assault

(a) Base Offense Level:

(1) 6, if the conduct involved physical contact, or if a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was possessed and its use was threatened; or

(2) 3, otherwise.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the offense resulted in substantial bodily injury to an individual under the age of sixteen years, increase by 4 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 112, 115(a), 115(b)(1), 351(e), 1751(e). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Minor assault" means a misdemeanor assault, or a felonious assault not covered by §2A2.2.

2. Definitions of "firearm" and "dangerous weapon" are found in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

3. "Substantial bodily injury" means "bodily injury which involves - (A) a temporary but substantial disfigurement; or (B) a temporary but substantial loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member, organ, or mental faculty." 18 U.S.C. § 113(b)(1).

Background: Minor assault and battery are covered in this section.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective October 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 64); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 87 and 88); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 510).

§2A2.4. Obstructing or Impeding Officers

(a) Base Offense Level: 6

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the conduct involved physical contact, or if a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was possessed and its use was threatened, increase by 3 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the conduct constituted aggravated assault, apply §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 111, 1501, 1502, 3056(d). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. The base offense level reflects the fact that the victim was a governmental officer performing official duties. Therefore, do not apply §3A1.2 (Official Victim) unless subsection (c) requires the offense level to be determined under §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault). Conversely, the base offense level does not reflect the possibility that the defendant may create a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to another person in the course of fleeing from a law enforcement official (although an offense under 18 U.S.C. § 758 for fleeing or evading a law enforcement checkpoint at high speed will often, but not always, involve the creation of that risk). If the defendant creates that risk and no higher guideline adjustment is applicable for the conduct creating the risk, apply §3C1.2 (Reckless Endangerment During Flight).

2. Definitions of "firearm" and "dangerous weapon" are found in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

3. The base offense level does not assume any significant disruption of governmental functions. In situations involving such disruption, an upward departure may be warranted. See §5K2.7 (Disruption of Governmental Function).

Background: Violations of 18 U.S.C. §§ 1501, 1502, and 3056(d) are misdemeanors; violation of 18 U.S.C. § 111 is a felony. The guideline has been drafted to provide offense levels that are identical to those otherwise provided for assaults involving an official victim; when no assault is involved, the offense level is 6.

Historical Note: Effective October 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 64). Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 89 and 90); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 443); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 550).

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3. CRIMINAL SEXUAL ABUSE

§2A3.1. Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse

(a) Base Offense Level: 27

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense was committed by the means set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a) or (b), increase by 4 levels.

(2)(A) If the victim had not attained the age of twelve years, increase by 4 levels; or (B) if the victim had attained the age of twelve years but had not attained the age of sixteen years, increase by 2 levels.

(3) If the victim was (A) in the custody, care, or supervisory control of the defendant; or (B) a person held in the custody of a correctional facility, increase by 2 levels.

(4)(A) If the victim sustained permanent or life-threatening bodily injury, increase by 4 levels; (B) if the victim sustained serious bodily injury, increase by 2 levels; or (C) if the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (A) and (B), increase by 3 levels.

(5)If the victim was abducted, increase by 4 levels.

(6)If, to persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct, or if, to facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct, the offense involved (A) the knowing misrepresentation of a participant’s identity; or (B) the use of a computer or an Internet-access device, increase by 2 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If a victim was killed under circumstances that would constitute murder under 18 U.S.C. § 1111 had such killing taken place within the territorial or maritime jurisdiction of the United States, apply §2A1.1 (First Degree Murder).

(d)Special Instruction

(1) If the offense occurred in a correctional facility and the victim was a corrections employee, the offense shall be deemed to have an official victim for purposes of subsection (a) of §3A1.2 (Official Victim).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 2241, 2242. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. For purposes of this guideline—

"Minor" means an individual who had not attained the age of 18 years.

"Participant" has the meaning given that term in Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §3B1.1 (Aggravating Role).

"Permanent or life-threatening bodily injury," "serious bodily injury," and "abducted" are defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions). However, for purposes of this guideline,"serious bodily injury" means conduct other than criminal sexual abuse, which already is taken into account in the base offense level under subsection (a).

"Prohibited sexual conduct" (A) means any sexual activity for which a person can be charged with a criminal offense; (B) includes the production of child pornography; and (C) does not include trafficking in, or possession of, child pornography. "Child pornography" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 2256(8).

"The means set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a) or (b)" are: by using force against the victim; by threatening or placing the victim in fear that any person will be subject to death, serious bodily injury, or kidnaping; by rendering the victim unconscious; or by administering by force or threat of force, or without the knowledge or permission of the victim, a drug, intoxicant, or other similar substance and thereby substantially impairing the ability of the victim to appraise or control conduct. This provision would apply, for example, if any dangerous weapon was used or brandished.

2. Subsection (b)(3), as it pertains to a victim in the custody, care, or supervisory control of the defendant, is intended to have broad application and is to be applied whenever the victim is entrusted to the defendant, whether temporarily or permanently. For example, teachers, day care providers, baby-sitters, or other temporary caretakers are among those who would be subject to this enhancement. In determining whether to apply this enhancement, the court should look to the actual relationship that existed between the defendant and the victim and not simply to the legal status of the defendant-victim relationship.

3. If the adjustment in subsection (b)(3) applies, do not apply §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

4. The enhancement in subsection (b)(6)(A) applies in cases involving the misrepresentation of a participant’s identity to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(6)(A) is intended to apply only to misrepresentations made directly to a minor or to a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the minor. Accordingly, the enhancement in subsection (b)(6)(A) would not apply to a misrepresentation made by a participant to an airline representative in the course of making travel arrangements for the minor.

The misrepresentation to which the enhancement in subsection (b)(6)(A) may apply includes misrepresentation of a participant’s name, age, occupation, gender, or status, as long as the misrepresentation was made with the intent to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Accordingly, use of a computer screen name, without such intent, would not be a sufficient basis for application of the enhancement.

Subsection (b)(6)(B) provides an enhancement if a computer or an Internet-access device was used to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(6)(B) is intended to apply only to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to communicate directly with a minor or with a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the minor. Accordingly, the enhancement would not apply to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to obtain airline tickets for the minor from an airline’s Internet site.

5. If a victim was sexually abused by more than one participant, an upward departure may be warranted. See §5K2.8 (Extreme Conduct).

Background: Sexual offenses addressed in this section are crimes of violence. Because of their dangerousness, attempts are treated the same as completed acts of criminal sexual abuse. The maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute is life imprisonment. The base offense level represents sexual abuse as set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 2242. An enhancement is provided for use of force; threat of death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping; or certain other means as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 2241. This includes any use or threatened use of a dangerous weapon.

An enhancement is provided when the victim is less than sixteen years of age. An additional enhancement is provided where the victim is less than twelve years of age. Any criminal sexual abuse with a child less than twelve years of age, regardless of "consent," is governed by §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse).

An enhancement for a custodial relationship between defendant and victim is also provided. Whether the custodial relationship is temporary or permanent, the defendant in such a case is a person the victim trusts or to whom the victim is entrusted. This represents the potential for greater and prolonged psychological damage. Also, an enhancement is provided where the victim was an inmate of, or a person employed in, a correctional facility. Finally, enhancements are provided for permanent, life-threatening, or serious bodily injury and abduction.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 91 and 92); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 392); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 444); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 477); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 511); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 545); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendments 592 and 601); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 615).

§2A3.2. Criminal Sexual Abuse of a Minor Under the Age of Sixteen Years (Statutory Rape) or Attempt to Commit Such Acts

(a) Base Offense Level:

(1) 24, if the offense involved (A) a violation of chapter 117 of title 18, United States Code; and (B)(i) the commission of a sexual act; or (ii) sexual contact;

(2) 21, if the offense (A) involved a violation of chapter 117 of title 18, United States Code; but (B) did not involve (i) the commission of a sexual act; or (ii) sexual contact; or

(3) 18, otherwise.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the victim was in the custody, care, or supervisory control of the defendant, increase by 2 levels.

(2) If subsection (b)(1) does not apply; and—

(A) the offense involved the knowing misrepresentation of a participant’s identity to (i) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (ii) facilitate transportation or travel, by the victim or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or

(B) a participant otherwise unduly influenced the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct,

increase by 2 levels.

(3) If a computer or an Internet-access device was used to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by the victim or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct, increase by 2 levels.

(4) If (A) subsection (a)(1) applies; and (B) none of subsections (b)(1) through (b)(3) applies, decrease by 6 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the offense involved criminal sexual abuse or attempt to commit criminal sexual abuse (as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 2241 or § 2242), apply §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse). If the victim had not attained the age of 12 years, §2A3.1 shall apply, regardless of the "consent" of the victim.

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. § 2243(a). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline:

"Participant" has the meaning given that term in Application Note 1 of §3B1.1 (Aggravating Role).

"Prohibited sexual conduct" has the meaning given that term in Application Note 1 of §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse).

"Sexual act" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 2246(2).

"Sexual contact" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 2246(3).

"Victim" means (A) an individual who, except as provided in subdivision (B), had not attained the age of 16 years; or (B) an undercover law enforcement officer who represented to a participant that the officer had not attained the age of 16 years.

2. Custody, Care, and Supervisory Control Enhancement.— Subsection (b)(1) is intended to have broad application and is to be applied whenever the victim is entrusted to the defendant, whether temporarily or permanently. For example, teachers, day care providers, baby-sitters, or other temporary caretakers are among those who would be subject to this enhancement. In determining whether to apply this enhancement, the court should look to the actual relationship that existed between the defendant and the victim and not simply to the legal status of the defendant-victim relationship.

3. Abuse of Position of Trust.— If the enhancement in subsection (b)(1) applies, do not apply subsection (b)(2) or §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

4. Misrepresentation of Identity.—The enhancement in subsection (b)(2)(A) applies in cases involving the misrepresentation of a participant’s identity to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by the victim or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(2)(A) is intended to apply only to misrepresentations made directly to the victim or to a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the victim. Accordingly, the enhancement in subsection (b)(2)(A) would not apply to a misrepresentation made by a participant to an airline representative in the course of making travel arrangements for the victim.

The misrepresentation to which the enhancement in subsection (b)(2)(A) may apply includes misrepresentation of a participant’s name, age, occupation, gender, or status, as long as the misrepresentation was made with the intent to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by the victim or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Accordingly, use of a computer screen name, without such intent, would not be a sufficient basis for application of the enhancement.

In determining whether subsection (b)(2)(B) applies, the court should closely consider the facts of the case to determine whether a participant’s influence over the victim compromised the voluntariness of the victim’s behavior.

In a case in which a participant is at least 10 years older than the victim, there shall be a rebuttable presumption, for purposes of subsection (b)(2)(B), that such participant unduly influenced the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. In such a case, some degree of undue influence can be presumed because of the substantial difference in age between the participant and the victim.

If the victim was threatened or placed in fear, the cross reference in subsection (c)(1) will apply.

5. Use of Computer or Internet-Access Device.— Subsection (b)(3) provides an enhancement if a computer or an Internet-access device was used to (A) persuade, induce, entice, coerce the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by the victim or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(3) is intended to apply only to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to communicate directly with the victim or with a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the victim. Accordingly, the enhancement would not apply to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to obtain airline tickets for the victim from an airline’s Internet site.

6. Cross Reference.— Subsection (c)(1) provides a cross reference to §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse) if the offense involved criminal sexual abuse or attempt to commit criminal sexual abuse, as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 2241 or § 2242. For example, the cross reference to §2A3.1 shall apply if (A) the victim had not attained the age of 12 years (see 18 U.S.C. § 2241(c)); (B) the victim had attained the age of 12 years but not attained the age of 16 years, and was placed in fear of death, serious bodily injury, or kidnaping (see 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a),(c)); or (C) the victim was threatened or placed in fear other than fear of death, serious bodily injury, or kidnaping (see 18 U.S.C. § 2242(1)).

7. Upward Departure Consideration.—There may be cases in which the offense level determined under this guideline substantially understates the seriousness of the offense. In such cases, an upward departure may be warranted. For example, an upward departure may be warranted if the defendant committed the criminal sexual act in furtherance of a commercial scheme such as pandering, transporting persons for the purpose of prostitution, or the production of pornography.

Background: This section applies to offenses involving the criminal sexual abuse of an individual who had not attained the age of 16 years. While this section applies to consensual sexual acts prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. § 2243(a) that would be lawful but for the age of the victim, it also applies to cases, prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. § 2243(a) or chapter 117 of title 18, United States Code, in which a participant took active measure(s) to unduly influence the victim to engage in prohibited sexual conduct and, thus, the voluntariness of the victim’s behavior was compromised. A two-level enhancement is provided in subsection (b)(2) for such cases. It is assumed that at least a four-year age difference exists between the victim and the defendant, as specified in 18 U.S.C. § 2243(a). A two-level enhancement is provided in subsection (b)(1) for a defendant who victimizes a minor under his supervision or care. However, if the victim had not attained the age of 12 years, §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse) will apply, regardless of the "consent" of the victim.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 93); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 392); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 444); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 511); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 592); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 615).

§2A3.3. Criminal Sexual Abuse of a Ward or Attempt to Commit Such Acts

(a) Base Offense Level: 9

(b)Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense involved the knowing misrepresentation of a participant’s identity to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct, increase by 2 levels.

(2) If a computer or an Internet-access device was used to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct, increase by 2 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. § 2243(b). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. For purposes of this guideline—

"Minor" means an individual who had not attained the age of 18 years.

"Participant" has the meaning given that term in Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §3B1.1 (Aggravating Role).

"Prohibited sexual conduct" has the meaning given that term in Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse).

"Ward" means a person in official detention under the custodial, supervisory, or disciplinary authority of the defendant.

2. The enhancement in subsection (b)(1) applies in cases involving the misrepresentation of a participant’s identity to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(1) is intended to apply only to misrepresentations made directly to a minor or to a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the minor. Accordingly, the enhancement in subsection (b)(1) would not apply to a misrepresentation made by a participant to an airline representative in the course of making travel arrangements for the minor.

The misrepresentation to which the enhancement in subsection (b)(1) may apply includes misrepresentation of a participant’s name, age, occupation, gender, or status, as long as the misrepresentation was made with the intent to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Accordingly, use of a computer screen name, without such intent, would not be a sufficient basis for application of the enhancement.

3. Subsection (b)(2) provides an enhancement if a computer or an Internet-access device was used to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(2) is intended to apply only to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to communicate directly with a minor or with a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the minor. Accordingly, the enhancement would not apply to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to obtain airline tickets for the minor from an airline’s Internet site.

Background: The offense covered by this section is a misdemeanor. The maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute is one year.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 94); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 511); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 592); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 615).

§2A3.4. Abusive Sexual Contact or Attempt to Commit Abusive Sexual Contact

(a) Base Offense Level:

(1) 16, if the offense was committed by the means set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a) or (b);

(2) 12, if the offense was committed by the means set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 2242;

(3) 10, otherwise.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the victim had not attained the age of twelve years, increase by 4 levels; but if the resulting offense level is less than 16, increase to level 16.

(2) If the base offense level is determined under subsection (a)(1) or (2), and the victim had attained the age of twelve years but had not attained the age of sixteen years, increase by 2 levels.

(3) If the victim was in the custody, care, or supervisory control of the defendant, increase by 2 levels.

(4) If the offense involved the knowing misrepresentation of a participant’s identity to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct, increase by 2 levels.

(5) If a computer or an Internet-access device was used to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct, increase by 2 levels.

(6)If the offense involved a violation of chapter 117 of title 18, United States Code, increase by 3 levels.

(c) Cross References

(1) If the offense involved criminal sexual abuse or attempt to commit criminal sexual abuse (as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 2241 or § 2242), apply §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse).

(2) If the offense involved criminal sexual abuse of a minor or attempt to commit criminal sexual abuse of a minor (as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 2243(a)), apply §2A3.2 (Criminal Sexual Abuse of a Minor Under the Age of Sixteen Years (Statutory Rape) or Attempt to Commit Such Acts), if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. § 2244(a)(1),(2),(3). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. For purposes of this guideline—

"Minor" means an individual who had not attained the age of 18 years.

"Participant" has the meaning given that term in Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §3B1.1 (Aggravating Role).

"Prohibited sexual conduct" has the meaning given that term in Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §2A3.1 (Criminal Sexual Abuse; Attempt to Commit Criminal Sexual Abuse).

2. "The means set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a) or (b)" are: by using force against the victim; by threatening or placing the victim in fear that any person will be subjected to death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping; by rendering the victim unconscious; or by administering by force or threat of force, or without the knowledge or permission of the victim, a drug, intoxicant, or other similar substance and thereby substantially impairing the ability of the victim to appraise or control conduct.

3. "The means set forth in 18 U.S.C. § 2242" are: by threatening or placing the victim in fear (other than by threatening or placing the victim in fear that any person will be subjected to death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping); or by victimizing an individual who is incapable of appraising the nature of the conduct or physically incapable of declining participation in, or communicating unwillingness to engage in, that sexual act.

4. Subsection (b)(3) is intended to have broad application and is to be applied whenever the victim is entrusted to the defendant, whether temporarily or permanently. For example, teachers, day care providers, baby-sitters, or other temporary caretakers are among those who would be subject to this enhancement. In determining whether to apply this enhancement, the court should look to the actual relationship that existed between the defendant and the victim and not simply to the legal status of the defendant-victim relationship.

5. If the adjustment in subsection (b)(3) applies, do not apply §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

6. The enhancement in subsection (b)(4) applies in cases involving the misrepresentation of a participant’s identity to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(4) is intended to apply only to misrepresentations made directly to a minor or to a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the minor. Accordingly, the enhancement in subsection (b)(4) would not apply to a misrepresentation made by a participant to an airline representative in the course of making travel arrangements for the minor.

The misrepresentation to which the enhancement in subsection (b)(4) may apply includes misrepresentation of a participant’s name, age, occupation, gender, or status, as long as the misrepresentation was made with the intent to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Accordingly, use of a computer screen name, without such intent, would not be a sufficient basis for application of the enhancement.

7. Subsection (b)(5) provides an enhancement if a computer or an Internet-access device was used to (A) persuade, induce, entice, or coerce a minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct; or (B) facilitate transportation or travel, by a minor or a participant, to engage in prohibited sexual conduct. Subsection (b)(5) is intended to apply only to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to communicate directly with a minor or with a person who exercises custody, care, or supervisory control of the minor. Accordingly, the enhancement would not apply to the use of a computer or an Internet-access device to obtain airline tickets for the minor from an airline’s Internet site.

Background: This section covers abusive sexual contact not amounting to criminal sexual abuse (criminal sexual abuse is covered under §§2A3.1-3.3). Alternative base offense levels are provided to take account of the different means used to commit the offense. Enhancements are provided for victimizing children or minors. The enhancement under subsection (b)(2) does not apply, however, where the base offense level is determined under subsection (a)(3) because an element of the offense to which that offense level applies is that the victim had attained the age of twelve years but had not attained the age of sixteen years. For cases involving consensual sexual contact involving victims that have achieved the age of 12 but are under age 16, the offense level assumes a substantial difference in sexual experience between the defendant and the victim. If the defendant and the victim are similar in sexual experience, a downward departure may be warranted. For such cases, the Commission recommends a downward departure to the equivalent of an offense level of level 6.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 95); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 392); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 444); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 511); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 592); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 615).

* * * * *

4. KIDNAPPING, ABDUCTION, OR UNLAWFUL RESTRAINT

§2A4.1. Kidnapping, Abduction, Unlawful Restraint

(a) Base Offense Level: 24

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If a ransom demand or a demand upon government was made, increase by 6 levels.

(2)(A) If the victim sustained permanent or life-threatening bodily injury, increase by 4 levels; (B) if the victim sustained serious bodily injury, increase by 2 levels; or (C) if the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (A) and (B), increase by 3 levels.

(3) If a dangerous weapon was used, increase by 2 levels.

(4)(A)If the victim was not released before thirty days had elapsed, increase by 2 levels.

(B) If the victim was not released before seven days had elapsed, increase by 1 level.

(C)If the victim was released before twenty-four hours had elapsed, decrease by 1 level.

(5)If the victim was sexually exploited, increase by 3 levels.

(6)If the victim is a minor and, in exchange for money or other consideration, was placed in the care or custody of another person who had no legal right to such care or custody of the victim, increase by 3 levels.

(7)If the victim was kidnapped, abducted, or unlawfully restrained during the commission of, or in connection with, another offense or escape therefrom; or if another offense was committed during the kidnapping, abduction, or unlawful restraint, increase to --

(A) the offense level from the Chapter Two offense guideline applicable to that other offense if such offense guideline includes an adjustment for kidnapping, abduction, or unlawful restraint, or otherwise takes such conduct into account; or

(B) 4 plus the offense level from the offense guideline applicable to that other offense, but in no event greater than level 43, in any other case,

if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the victim was killed under circumstances that would constitute murder under 18 U.S.C. § 1111 had such killing taken place within the territorial or maritime jurisdiction of the United States, apply §2A1.1 (First Degree Murder).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 115(b)(2), 351(b), (d), 1201, 1203, 1751(b). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. For purposes of this guideline—

Definitions of "serious bodily injury" and "permanent or life-threatening bodily injury" are found in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions). However, for purposes of this guideline, "serious bodily injury" means conduct other than criminal sexual abuse, which is taken into account in the specific offense characteristic under subsection (b)(5).

2. "A dangerous weapon was used" means that a firearm was discharged, or a "firearm" or "dangerous weapon" was "otherwise used" (as defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions)).

3. For the purpose of subsection (b)(4)(C), "released" includes allowing the victim to escape or turning him over to law enforcement authorities without resistance.

4. "Sexually exploited" includes offenses set forth in 18 U.S.C. §§ 2241-2244, 2251, and 2421-2423.

5. In the case of a conspiracy, attempt, or solicitation to kidnap, §2X1.1 (Attempt, Solicitation, or Conspiracy) requires that the court apply any adjustment that can be determined with reasonable certainty. Therefore, for example, if an offense involved conspiracy to kidnap for the purpose of committing murder, subsection (b)(7) would reference first degree murder (resulting in an offense level of 43, subject to a possible 3-level reduction under §2X1.1(b)). Similarly, for example, if an offense involved a kidnapping during which a participant attempted to murder the victim under circumstances that would have constituted first degree murder had death occurred, the offense referenced under subsection (b)(7) would be the offense of first degree murder.

Background: Federal kidnapping cases generally encompass three categories of conduct: limited duration kidnapping where the victim is released unharmed; kidnapping that occurs as part of or to facilitate the commission of another offense (often, sexual assault); and kidnapping for ransom or political demand.

The guideline contains an adjustment for the length of time that the victim was detained. The adjustment recognizes the increased suffering involved in lengthy kidnappings and provides an incentive to release the victim.

An enhancement is provided when the offense is committed for ransom (subsection (b)(1)) or involves another federal, state, or local offense that results in a greater offense level (subsections (b)(7) and (c)(1)).

Section 401 of Public Law 101-647 amended 18 U.S.C. § 1201 to require that courts take into account certain specific offense characteristics in cases involving a victim under eighteen years of age and directed the Commission to include those specific offense characteristics within the guidelines. Where the guidelines did not already take into account the conduct identified by the Act, additional specific offense characteristics have been provided.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 96); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 363); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 445); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 478); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 545).

§2A4.2. Demanding or Receiving Ransom Money

(a) Base Offense Level: 23

(b) Cross Reference

(1) If the defendant was a participant in the kidnapping offense, apply §2A4.1 (Kidnapping, Abduction, Unlawful Restraint).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 876, 877, 1202. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Note:

1. A "participant" is a person who is criminally responsible for the commission of the offense, but need not have been convicted.

Background: This section specifically includes conduct prohibited by 18 U.S.C. § 1202, requiring that ransom money be received, possessed, or disposed of with knowledge of its criminal origins. The actual demand for ransom under these circumstances is reflected in §2A4.1. This section additionally includes extortionate demands through the use of the United States Postal Service, behavior proscribed by 18 U.S.C. §§ 876-877.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 479).

* * * * *

5. AIR PIRACY

§2A5.1. Aircraft Piracy or Attempted Aircraft Piracy

(a) Base Offense Level: 38

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If death resulted, increase by 5 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 49 U.S.C. § 46502(a), (b) (formerly 49 U.S.C. § 1472 (i), (n)). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Background: This section covers aircraft piracy both within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States, 49 U.S.C. § 46502(a), and aircraft piracy outside that jurisdiction when the defendant is later found in the United States, 49 U.S.C. § 46502(b). Seizure of control of an aircraft may be by force or violence, or threat of force or violence, or by any other form of intimidation. The presence of a weapon is assumed in the base offense level.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534).

§2A5.2. Interference with Flight Crew Member or Flight Attendant

(a) Base Offense Level (Apply the greatest):

(1) 30, if the offense involved intentionally endangering the safety of the aircraft and passengers; or

(2) 18, if the offense involved recklessly endangering the safety of the aircraft and passengers; or

(3) if an assault occurred, the offense level from the most analogous assault guideline, §§2A2.1-2A2.4; or

(4) 9.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 49 U.S.C. §§ 46308, 46504 (formerly 49 U.S.C. § 1472(c), (j)). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Background: An adjustment is provided where the defendant intentionally or recklessly endangered the safety of the aircraft and passengers. The offense of carrying a weapon aboard an aircraft, which is proscribed by 49 U.S.C. § 46505, is covered in §2K1.5 (Possessing Dangerous Weapons or Materials While Boarding or Aboard an Aircraft).

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 97 and 303); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 480); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534).

§2A5.3. Committing Certain Crimes Aboard Aircraft

(a) Base Offense Level: The offense level applicable to the underlying offense.

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 49 U.S.C. § 46506 (formerly 49 U.S.C. § 1472(k)(1)).

Application Notes:

1. "Underlying offense" refers to the offense listed in 49 U.S.C. § 46506 of which the defendant is convicted.

2. If the conduct intentionally or recklessly endangered the safety of the aircraft or passengers, an upward departure may be warranted.

Historical Note: Effective October 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 65). Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 98); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534).

* * * * *

6. THREATENING OR HARASSING COMMUNICATIONS, STALKING, AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

§2A6.1. Threatening or Harassing Communications

(a) Base Offense Level:

(1) 12; or

(2) 6, if the defendant is convicted of an offense under 47 U.S.C. § 223(a)(1)(C), (D), or (E) that did not involve a threat to injure a person or property.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense involved any conduct evidencing an intent to carry out such threat, increase by 6 levels.

(2) If the offense involved more than two threats, increase by 2 levels.

(3) If the offense involved the violation of a court protection order, increase by 2 levels.

(4) If (A) subsection (a)(2) and subdivisions (1), (2), and (3) do not apply, and (B) the offense involved a single instance evidencing little or no deliberation, decrease by 4 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 871, 876, 877, 878(a), 879; 47 U.S.C. § 223(a)(1)(C)-(E). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. The Commission recognizes that this offense includes a particularly wide range of conduct and that it is not possible to include all of the potentially relevant circumstances in the offense level. Factors not incorporated in the guideline may be considered by the court in determining whether a departure from the guidelines is warranted. See Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).

2. In determining whether subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (b)(3) apply, the court shall consider both conduct that occurred prior to the offense and conduct that occurred during the offense; however, conduct that occurred prior to the offense must be substantially and directly connected to the offense, under the facts of the case taken as a whole. For example, if the defendant engaged in several acts of mailing threatening letters to the same victim over a period of years (including acts that occurred prior to the offense), then for purposes of determining whether subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (b)(3) apply, the court shall consider only those prior acts of threatening the victim that have a substantial and direct connection to the offense.

For purposes of Chapter Three, Part D (Multiple Counts), multiple counts involving making a threatening or harassing communication to the same victim are grouped together under §3D1.2 (Groups of Closely Related Counts). Multiple counts involving different victims are not to be grouped under §3D1.2.

If the conduct involved substantially more than two threatening communications to the same victim or a prolonged period of making harassing communications to the same victim, an upward departure may be warranted.

Background: These statutes cover a wide range of conduct, the seriousness of which depends upon the defendant’s intent and the likelihood that the defendant would carry out the threat. The specific offense characteristics are intended to distinguish such cases.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 480); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 549).

§2A6.2. Stalking or Domestic Violence

(a) Base Offense Level: 18

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the offense involved one of the following aggravating factors: (A) the violation of a court protection order; (B) bodily injury; (C) possession, or threatened use, of a dangerous weapon; or (D) a pattern of activity involving stalking, threatening, harassing, or assaulting the same victim, increase by 2 levels. If the offense involved more than one of these aggravating factors, increase by 4 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the offense involved the commission of another criminal offense, apply the offense guideline from Chapter Two, Part A (Offenses Against the Person) most applicable to that other criminal offense, if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 2261-2262.

Application Notes:

1. For purposes of this guideline:

"Bodily injury" and "dangerous weapon" are defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

"Pattern of activity involving stalking, threatening, harassing, or assaulting the same victim" means any combination of two or more separate instances of stalking, threatening, harassing, or assaulting the same victim, whether or not such conduct resulted in a conviction. For example, a single instance of stalking accompanied by a separate instance of threatening, harassing, or assaulting the same victim constitutes a pattern of activity for purposes of this guideline.

"Stalking" means (A) traveling with the intent to kill, injure, harass, or intimidate another person and, in the course of, or as a result of, such travel, placing the person in reasonable fear of death or serious bodily injury to that person or an immediate family member of that person; or (B) using the mail or any facility of interstate or foreign commerce to engage in a course of conduct that places that person in reasonable fear of the death of, or serious bodily injury to, that person or an immediate family member of that person. See 18 U.S.C. § 2261A. "Immediate family member" (A) has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 115(c)(2); and (B) includes a spouse or intimate partner. "Course of conduct" and "spouse or intimate partner" have the meaning given those terms in 18 U.S.C. § 2266(2) and (7), respectively.

2. Subsection (b)(1) provides for a two-level or four-level enhancement based on the degree to which the offense involved aggravating factors listed in that subsection. If the offense involved aggravating factors more serious than the factors listed in subsection (b)(1), the cross reference in subsection (c) most likely will apply, if the resulting offense level is greater, because the more serious conduct will be covered by another offense guideline from Chapter Two, Part A. For example, §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault) most likely would apply pursuant to subsection (c) if the offense involved assaultive conduct in which injury more serious than bodily injury occurred or if a dangerous weapon was used rather than merely possessed.

3. In determining whether subsection (b)(1)(D) applies, the court shall consider, under the totality of the circumstances, any conduct that occurred prior to or during the offense; however, conduct that occurred prior to the offense must be substantially and directly connected to the offense. For example, if a defendant engaged in several acts of stalking the same victim over a period of years (including acts that occurred prior to the offense), then for purposes of determining whether subsection (b)(1)(D) applies, the court shall look to the totality of the circumstances, considering only those prior acts of stalking the victim that have a substantial and direct connection to the offense.

Prior convictions taken into account under subsection (b)(1)(D) are also counted for purposes of determining criminal history points pursuant to Chapter Four, Part A (Criminal History).

4. For purposes of Chapter Three, Part D (Multiple Counts), multiple counts involving stalking, threatening, or harassing the same victim are grouped together (and with counts of other offenses involving the same victim that are covered by this guideline) under §3D1.2 (Groups of Closely Related Counts). For example, if the defendant is convicted of two counts of stalking the defendant’s ex-spouse under 18 U.S.C. § 2261A and one count of interstate domestic violence involving an assault of the ex-spouse under 18 U.S.C. § 2261, the stalking counts would be grouped together with the interstate domestic violence count. This grouping procedure avoids unwarranted "double counting" with the enhancement in subsection (b)(1)(D) (for multiple acts of stalking, threatening, harassing, or assaulting the same victim) and recognizes that the stalking and interstate domestic violence counts are sufficiently related to warrant grouping.

Multiple counts that are cross referenced to another offense guideline pursuant to subsection (c) are to be grouped together if §3D1.2 (Groups of Closely Related Counts) would require grouping of those counts under that offense guideline. Similarly, multiple counts cross referenced pursuant to subsection (c) are not to be grouped together if §3D1.2 would preclude grouping of the counts under that offense guideline. For example, if the defendant is convicted of multiple counts of threatening an ex-spouse in violation of a court protection order under 18 U.S.C. § 2262 and the counts are cross referenced to §2A6.1 (Threatening or Harassing Communications), the counts would group together because Application Note 2 of §2A6.1 specifically requires grouping. In contrast, if the defendant is convicted of multiple counts of assaulting the ex-spouse in violation of a court protection order under 18 U.S.C. § 2262 and the counts are cross referenced to §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault), the counts probably would not group together inasmuch as §3D1.2(d) specifically precludes grouping of counts covered by §2A2.2 and no other provision of §3D1.2 would likely apply to require grouping.

Multiple counts involving different victims are not to be grouped under §3D1.2 (Groups of Closely Related Counts).

5. If the defendant received an enhancement under subsection (b)(1) but that enhancement does not adequately reflect the extent or seriousness of the conduct involved, an upward departure may be warranted. For example, an upward departure may be warranted if the defendant stalked the victim on many occasions over a prolonged period of time.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 549). Amended effective November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 616).

PART B - BASIC ECONOMIC OFFENSES

1. THEFT, EMBEZZLEMENT, RECEIPT OF STOLEN PROPERTY, PROPERTY DESTRUCTION, AND OFFENSES INVOLVING FRAUD OR DECEIT

Introductory Commentary

These sections address basic forms of property offenses: theft, embezzlement, fraud, forgery, counterfeiting (other than offenses involving altered or counterfeit bearer obligations of the United States), insider trading, transactions in stolen goods, and simple property damage or destruction. (Arson is dealt with separately in Chapter Two, Part K (Offenses Involving Public Safety)). These guidelines apply to offenses prosecuted under a wide variety of federal statutes, as well as offenses that arise under the Assimilative Crimes Act.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 303); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2B1.1. Larceny, Embezzlement, and Other Forms of Theft; Offenses Involving Stolen Property; Property Damage or Destruction; Fraud and Deceit; Forgery; Offenses Involving Altered or Counterfeit Instruments Other than Counterfeit Bearer Obligations of the United States

(a) Base Offense Level: 6

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the loss exceeded $5,000, increase the offense level as follows:

 

Loss(Apply the Greatest)

Increase in Level

(A)

$5,000 or less

no increase

(B)

More than $5,000

add 2

(C)

More than $10,000

add 4

(D)

More than $30,000

add 6

(E)

More than $70,000

add 8

(F)

More than $120,000

add 10

(G)

More than $200,000

add 12

(H)

More than $400,000

add 14

(I)

More than $1,000,000

add 16

(J)

More than $2,500,000

add 18

(K)

More than $7,000,000

add 20

(L)

More than $20,000,000

add 22

(M)

More than $50,000,000

add 24

(N)

More than $100,000,000

add 26.

(2) (Apply the greater) If the offense—

(A) (i) involved more than 10, but less than 50, victims; or (ii) was committed through mass-marketing, increase by 2 levels; or

(B) involved 50 or more victims, increase by 4 levels.

(3) If the offense involved a theft from the person of another, increase by 2 levels.

(4) If the offense involved receiving stolen property, and the defendant was a person in the business of receiving and selling stolen property, increase by 2 levels.

(5)If the offense involved misappropriation of a trade secret and the defendant knew or intended that the offense would benefit a foreign government, foreign instrumentality, or foreign agent, increase by 2 levels.

(6)If the offense involved theft of, damage to, or destruction of, property from a national cemetery, increase by 2 levels.

(7)If the offense involved (A) a misrepresentation that the defendant was acting on behalf of a charitable, educational, religious, or political organization, or a government agency; (B) a misrepresentation or other fraudulent action during the course of a bankruptcy proceeding; (C) a violation of any prior, specific judicial or administrative order, injunction, decree, or process not addressed elsewhere in the guidelines; or (D) a misrepresentation to a consumer in connection with obtaining, providing, or furnishing financial assistance for an institution of higher education, increase by 2 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 10, increase to level 10.

(8)If (A) the defendant relocated, or participated in relocating, a fraudulent scheme to another jurisdiction to evade law enforcement or regulatory officials; (B) a substantial part of a fraudulent scheme was committed from outside the United States; or (C) the offense otherwise involved sophisticated means, increase by 2 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 12, increase to level 12.

(9)If the offense involved (A) the possession or use of any device-making equipment; (B) the production or trafficking of any unauthorized access device or counterfeit access device; or (C)(i) the unauthorized transfer or use of any means of identification unlawfully to produce or obtain any other means of identification; or (ii) the possession of 5 or more means of identification that unlawfully were produced from, or obtained by the use of, another means of identification, increase by 2 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 12, increase to level 12.

(10)If the offense involved an organized scheme to steal vehicles or vehicle parts, and the offense level is less than level 14, increase to level 14.

(11)If the offense involved (A) the conscious or reckless risk of death or serious bodily injury; or (B) possession of a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) in connection with the offense, increase by 2 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 14, increase to level 14.

(12)(Apply the greater) If—

(A) the defendant derived more than $1,000,000 in gross receipts from one or more financial institutions as a result of the offense, increase by 2 levels; or

(B) the offense substantially jeopardized the safety and soundness of a financial institution, increase by 4 levels.

If the resulting offense level determined under subdivision (A) or (B) is less than level 24, increase to level 24.

(c) Cross References

(1) If (A) a firearm, destructive device, explosive material, or controlled substance was taken, or the taking of any such item was an object of the offense; or (B) the stolen property received, transported, transferred, transmitted, or possessed was a firearm, destructive device, explosive material, or controlled substance, apply §2D1.1 (Unlawful Manufacturing, Importing, Exporting, or Trafficking (Including Possession with Intent to Commit These Offenses); Attempt or Conspiracy), §2D2.1 (Unlawful Possession; Attempt or Conspiracy), §2K1.3 (Unlawful Receipt, Possession, or Transportation of Explosive Materials; Prohibited Transactions Involving Explosive Materials), or §2K2.1 (Unlawful Receipt, Possession, or Transportation of Firearms or Ammunition; Prohibited Transactions Involving Firearms or Ammunition), as appropriate.

(2) If the offense involved arson, or property damage by use of explosives, apply §2K1.4 (Arson; Property Damage by Use of Explosives), if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(3) If (A) neither subdivision (1) nor (2) of this subsection applies; (B) the defendant was convicted under a statute proscribing false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements or representations generally (e.g., 18 U.S.C. § 1001, § 1341, § 1342, or § 1343); and (C) the conduct set forth in the count of conviction establishes an offense specifically covered by another guideline in Chapter Two (Offense Conduct), apply that other guideline.

(d)Special Instruction

(1) If the defendant is convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(4) or (5), the minimum guideline sentence, notwithstanding any other adjustment, shall be six months’ imprisonment.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 7 U.S.C. §§ 6, 6b, 6c, 6h, 6o, 13, 23; 15 U.S.C. §§ 50, 77e, 77q, 77x, 78j, 78ff, 80b-6, 1644, 6821; 18 U.S.C. §§ 38, 225, 285-289, 471-473, 500, 510, 553(a)(1), 641, 656, 657, 659, 662, 664, 1001-1008, 1010-1014, 1016-1022, 1025, 1026, 1028, 1029, 1030(a)(4)-(5), 1031, 1341-1344, 1361, 1363, 1702, 1703 (if vandalism or malicious mischief, including destruction of mail, is involved), 1708, 1831, 1832, 2113(b), 2312-2317; 29 U.S.C. § 501(c); 42 U.S.C. § 1011; 49 U.S.C. §§ 30170, 46317(a). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline:

"Financial institution" includes any institution described in 18 U.S.C. § 20, § 656, § 657, § 1005, § 1006, § 1007, or § 1014; any state or foreign bank, trust company, credit union, insurance company, investment company, mutual fund, savings (building and loan) association, union or employee pension fund; any health, medical, or hospital insurance association; brokers and dealers registered, or required to be registered, with the Securities and Exchange Commission; futures commodity merchants and commodity pool operators registered, or required to be registered, with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; and any similar entity, whether or not insured by the federal government. "Union or employee pension fund" and "any health, medical, or hospital insurance association," primarily include large pension funds that serve many persons (e.g., pension funds of large national and international organizations, unions, and corporations doing substantial interstate business), and associations that undertake to provide pension, disability, or other benefits (e.g., medical or hospitalization insurance) to large numbers of persons.

"Firearm" and "destructive device" have the meaning given those terms in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

"Foreign instrumentality" and "foreign agent" have the meaning given those terms in 18 U.S.C. § 1839(1) and (2), respectively.

"National cemetery" means a cemetery (A) established under section 2400 of title 38, United States Code; or (B) under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force, or the Secretary of the Interior.

"Theft from the person of another" means theft, without the use of force, of property that was being held by another person or was within arms’ reach. Examples include pick-pocketing and non-forcible purse-snatching, such as the theft of a purse from a shopping cart.

"Trade secret" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1839(3).

2. Loss Under Subsection (b)(1).—This application note applies to the determination of loss under subsection (b)(1).

(A)General Rule.—Subject to the exclusions in subdivision (D), loss is the greater of actual loss or intended loss.

(i)Actual Loss.—"Actual loss" means the reasonably foreseeable pecuniary harm that resulted from the offense.

(ii)Intended Loss.—"Intended loss" (I) means the pecuniary harm that was intended to result from the offense; and (II) includes intended pecuniary harm that would have been impossible or unlikely to occur (e.g., as in a government sting operation, or an insurance fraud in which the claim exceeded the insured value).

(iii)Pecuniary Harm.—"Pecuniary harm" means harm that is monetary or that otherwise is readily measurable in money. Accordingly, pecuniary harm does not include emotional distress, harm to reputation, or other non-economic harm.

(iv)Reasonably Foreseeable Pecuniary Harm.—For purposes of this guideline, "reasonably foreseeable pecuniary harm" means pecuniary harm that the defendant knew or, under the circumstances, reasonably should have known, was a potential result of the offense.

(v)Rules of Construction in Certain Cases.—In the cases described in subdivisions (I) through (III), reasonably foreseeable pecuniary harm shall be considered to include the pecuniary harm specified for those cases as follows:

(I)Product Substitution Cases.—In the case of a product substitution offense, the reasonably foreseeable pecuniary harm includes the reasonably foreseeable costs of making substitute transactions and handling or disposing of the product delivered, or of retrofitting the product so that it can be used for its intended purpose, and the reasonably foreseeable costs of rectifying the actual or potential disruption to the victim’s business operations caused by the product substitution.

(II)Procurement Fraud Cases.—In the case of a procurement fraud, such as a fraud affecting a defense contract award, reasonably foreseeable pecuniary harm includes the reasonably foreseeable administrative costs to the government and other participants of repeating or correcting the procurement action affected, plus any increased costs to procure the product or service involved that was reasonably foreseeable.

(III)Protected Computer Cases.—In the case of an offense involving unlawfully accessing, or exceeding authorized access to, a "protected computer" as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 1030(e)(2), actual loss includes the following pecuniary harm, regardless of whether such pecuniary harm was reasonably foreseeable: reasonable costs to the victim of conducting a damage assessment, and restoring the system and data to their condition prior to the offense, and any lost revenue due to interruption of service.

(B)Gain.—The court shall use the gain that resulted from the offense as an alternative measure of loss only if there is a loss but it reasonably cannot be determined.

(C)Estimation of Loss.—The court need only make a reasonable estimate of the loss. The sentencing judge is in a unique position to assess the evidence and estimate the loss based upon that evidence. For this reason, the court’s loss determination is entitled to appropriate deference. See 18 U.S.C. § 3742(e) and (f).

The estimate of the loss shall be based on available information, taking into account, as appropriate and practicable under the circumstances, factors such as the following:

(i)The fair market value of the property unlawfully taken or destroyed; or, if the fair market value is impracticable to determine or inadequately measures the harm, the cost to the victim of replacing that property.

(ii)The cost of repairs to damaged property.

(iii)The approximate number of victims multiplied by the average loss to each victim.

(iv)More general factors, such as the scope and duration of the offense and revenues generated by similar operations.

(D)Exclusions from Loss.—Loss shall not include the following:

(i)Interest of any kind, finance charges, late fees, penalties, amounts based on an agreed-upon return or rate of return, or other similar costs.

(ii)Costs to the government of, and costs incurred by victims primarily to aid the government in, the prosecution and criminal investigation of an offense.

(E)Credits Against Loss.—Loss shall be reduced by the following:

(i)The money returned, and the fair market value of the property returned and the services rendered, by the defendant or other persons acting jointly with the defendant, to the victim before the offense was detected. The time of detection of the offense is the earlier of (I) the time the offense was discovered by a victim or government agency; or (II) the time the defendant knew or reasonably should have known that the offense was detected or about to be detected by a victim or government agency.

(ii)In a case involving collateral pledged or otherwise provided by the defendant, the amount the victim has recovered at the time of sentencing from disposition of the collateral, or if the collateral has not been disposed of by that time, the fair market value of the collateral at the time of sentencing.

(F)Special Rules.—Notwithstanding subdivision (A), the following special rules shall be used to assist in determining loss in the cases indicated:

(i)Stolen or Counterfeit Credit Cards and Access Devices; Purloined Numbers and Codes.—In a case involving any counterfeit access device or unauthorized access device, loss includes any unauthorized charges made with the counterfeit access device or unauthorized access device and shall be not less than $500 per access device. However, if the unauthorized access device is a means of telecommunications access that identifies a specific telecommunications instrument or telecommunications account (including an electronic serial number/mobile identification number (ESN/MIN) pair), and that means was only possessed, and not used, during the commission of the offense, loss shall be not less than $100 per unused means. For purposes of this subdivision, "counterfeit access device" and "unauthorized access device" have the meaning given those terms in Application Note 7(A).

(ii)Government Benefits.—In a case involving government benefits (e.g., grants, loans, entitlement program payments), loss shall be considered to be not less than the value of the benefits obtained by unintended recipients or diverted to unintended uses, as the case may be. For example, if the defendant was the intended recipient of food stamps having a value of $100 but fraudulently received food stamps having a value of $150, loss is $50.

(iii)Davis-Bacon Act Violations.—In a case involving a Davis-Bacon Act violation (i.e., a violation of 40 U.S.C. § 276a, criminally prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. § 1001), the value of the benefits shall be considered to be not less than the difference between the legally required wages and actual wages paid.

(iv)Ponzi and Other Fraudulent Investment Schemes.—In a case involving a fraudulent investment scheme, such as a Ponzi scheme, loss shall not be reduced by the money or the value of the property transferred to any individual investor in the scheme in excess of that investor’s principal investment (i.e., the gain to an individual investor in the scheme shall not be used to offset the loss to another individual investor in the scheme).

(v)Certain Other Unlawful Misrepresentation Schemes.—In a case involving a scheme in which (I) services were fraudulently rendered to the victim by persons falsely posing as licensed professionals; (II) goods were falsely represented as approved by a governmental regulatory agency; or (III) goods for which regulatory approval by a government agency was required but not obtained, or was obtained by fraud, loss shall include the amount paid for the property, services or goods transferred, rendered, or misrepresented, with no credit provided for the value of those items or services.

(vi)Value of Controlled Substances.—In a case involving controlled substances, loss is the estimated street value of the controlled substances.

3. Victim and Mass-Marketing Enhancement under Subsection (b)(2)

(A) Definitions.— For purposes of subsection (b)(2):

(i)"Mass-marketing" means a plan, program, promotion, or campaign that is conducted through solicitation by telephone, mail, the Internet, or other means to induce a large number of persons to (I) purchase goods or services; (II) participate in a contest or sweepstakes; or (III) invest for financial profit. "Mass-marketing" includes, for example, a telemarketing campaign that solicits a large number of individuals to purchase fraudulent life insurance policies.

(ii)"Victim" means (I) any person who sustained any part of the actual loss determined under subsection (b)(1); or (II) any individual who sustained bodily injury as a result of the offense. "Person" includes individuals, corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies.

(B)Undelivered United States Mail

(i)In General.—In a case in which undelivered United States mail was taken, or the taking of such item was an object of the offense, or in a case in which the stolen property received, transported, transferred, transmitted, or possessed was undelivered United States mail, "victim" means any person (I) described in subdivision (A)(ii) of this note; or (II) who was the intended recipient, or addressee, of the undelivered United States mail.

(ii)Special Rule.—A case described in subdivision (B)(i) of this note that involved a Postal Service (I) relay box; (II) collection box; (III) delivery vehicle; or (IV) satchel or cart, shall be considered to have involved 50 or more victims.

(iii)Definition.—"Undelivered United States mail" means mail that has not actually been received by the addressee or his agent (e.g., mail taken from the addressee’s mail box).

(C)Vulnerable Victims.—If subsection (b)(2)(B) applies, an enhancement under §3A1.1(b)(2) shall not apply.

4. Enhancement for Business of Receiving and Selling Stolen Property under Subsection (b)(4).—For purposes of subsection (b)(4), the court shall consider the following non-exhaustive list of factors in determining whether the defendant was in the business of receiving and selling stolen property:

(A)The regularity and sophistication of the defendant’s activities.

(B)The value and size of the inventory of stolen property maintained by the defendant.

(C)The extent to which the defendant’s activities encouraged or facilitated other crimes.

(D)The defendant’s past activities involving stolen property.

5. Application of Subsection (b)(7)

(A) In General.—The adjustments in subsection (b)(7) are alternative rather than cumulative. If, in a particular case, however, more than one of the enumerated factors applied, an upward departure may be warranted.

(B)Misrepresentations Regarding Charitable and Other Institutions.—Subsection (b)(7)(A) applies in any case in which the defendant represented that the defendant was acting to obtain a benefit on behalf of a charitable, educational, religious, or political organization, or a government agency (regardless of whether the defendant actually was associated with the organization or government agency) when, in fact, the defendant intended to divert all or part of that benefit (e.g., for the defendant’s personal gain). Subsection (b)(7)(A) applies, for example, to the following:

(i)A defendant who solicited contributions for a non-existent famine relief organization.

(ii)A defendant who solicited donations from church members by falsely claiming to be a fundraiser for a religiously affiliated school.

(iii)A defendant, chief of a local fire department, who conducted a public fundraiser representing that the purpose of the fundraiser was to procure sufficient funds for a new fire engine when, in fact, the defendant intended to divert some of the funds for the defendant’s personal benefit.

(C) Fraud in Contravention of Prior Judicial Order.—Subsection (b)(7)(C) provides an enhancement if the defendant commits a fraud in contravention of a prior, official judicial or administrative warning, in the form of an order, injunction, decree, or process, to take or not to take a specified action. A defendant who does not comply with such a prior, official judicial or administrative warning demonstrates aggravated criminal intent and deserves additional punishment. If it is established that an entity the defendant controlled was a party to the prior proceeding that resulted in the official judicial or administrative action, and the defendant had knowledge of that prior decree or order, this enhancement applies even if the defendant was not a specifically named party in that prior case. For example, a defendant whose business previously was enjoined from selling a dangerous product, but who nonetheless engaged in fraudulent conduct to sell the product, is subject to this enhancement. This enhancement does not apply if the same conduct resulted in an enhancement pursuant to a provision found elsewhere in the guidelines (e.g., a violation of a condition of release addressed in §2J1.7 (Commission of Offense While on Release) or a violation of probation addressed in §4A1.1 (Criminal History Category)).

(D)College Scholarship Fraud.—For purposes of subsection (b)(7)(D):

"Financial assistance" means any scholarship, grant, loan, tuition, discount, award, or other financial assistance for the purpose of financing an education.

"Institution of higher education" has the meaning given that term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1954 (20 U.S.C. § 1001).

(E) Non-Applicability of Enhancements

(i)Subsection (b)(7)(A).—If the conduct that forms the basis for an enhancement under subsection (b)(7)(A) is the only conduct that forms the basis for an adjustment under §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill), do not apply that adjustment under §3B1.3.

(ii)Subsection (b)(7)(B) and (C).—If the conduct that forms the basis for an enhancement under subsection (b)(7)(B) or (C) is the only conduct that forms the basis for an adjustment under §3C1.1 (Obstructing or Impeding the Administration of Justice), do not apply that adjustment under §3C1.1.

6. Sophisticated Means Enhancement under Subsection (b)(8).—

(A) Definition of United States.—For purposes of subsection (b)(8)(B), "United States" means each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa.

(B) Sophisticated Means Enhancement.—For purposes of subsection (b)(8)(C), "sophisticated means" means especially complex or especially intricate offense conduct pertaining to the execution or concealment of an offense. For example, in a telemarketing scheme, locating the main office of the scheme in one jurisdiction but locating soliciting operations in another jurisdiction ordinarily indicates sophisticated means. Conduct such as hiding assets or transactions, or both, through the use of fictitious entities, corporate shells, or offshore financial accounts also ordinarily indicates sophisticated means.

(C) Non-Applicability of Enhancement.—If the conduct that forms the basis for an enhancement under subsection (b)(8) is the only conduct that forms the basis for an adjustment under §3C1.1, do not apply that adjustment under §3C1.1.

7. Application of Subsection (b)(9).—

(A) Definitions.—For purposes of subsection (b)(9):

"Counterfeit access device" (i) has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(e)(2); and (ii) includes a telecommunications instrument that has been modified or altered to obtain unauthorized use of telecommunications service. "Telecommunications service" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(e)(9).

"Device-making equipment" (i) has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(e)(6); and (ii) includes (I) any hardware or software that has been configured as described in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(a)(9); and (II) a scanning receiver referred to in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(a)(8). "Scanning receiver" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(e)(8).

"Means of identification" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1028(d)(3), except that such means of identification shall be of an actual (i.e., not fictitious) individual, other than the defendant or a person for whose conduct the defendant is accountable under §1B1.3 (Relevant Conduct).

"Produce" includes manufacture, design, alter, authenticate, duplicate, or assemble. "Production" includes manufacture, design, alteration, authentication, duplication, or assembly.

"Unauthorized access device" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(e)(3).

(B)Identification Documents.—Offenses involving identification documents, false identification documents, and means of identification, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1028, also are covered by this guideline. If the primary purpose of the offense, under 18 U.S.C. § 1028, was to violate, or assist another to violate, the law pertaining to naturalization, citizenship, or legal resident status, apply §2L2.1 (Trafficking in a Document Relating to Naturalization) or §2L2.2 (Fraudulently Acquiring Documents Relating to Naturalization), as appropriate, rather than this guideline.

(C) Application of Subsection (b)(9)(C)(i)

(i)In General.—Subsection (b)(9)(C)(i) applies in a case in which a means of identification of an individual other than the defendant (or a person for whose conduct the defendant is accountable under §1B1.3 (Relevant Conduct)) is used without that individual’s authorization unlawfully to produce or obtain another means of identification.

(ii) Examples.—Examples of conduct to which subsection (b)(9)(C)(i) applies are as follows:

(I)A defendant obtains an individual’s name and social security number from a source (e.g., from a piece of mail taken from the individual’s mailbox) and obtains a bank loan in that individual’s name. In this example, the account number of the bank loan is the other means of identification that has been obtained unlawfully.

(II)A defendant obtains an individual’s name and address from a source (e.g., from a driver’s license in a stolen wallet) and applies for, obtains, and subsequently uses a credit card in that individual’s name. In this example, the credit card is the other means of identification that has been obtained unlawfully.

(iii) Nonapplicability of Subsection (b)(9)(C)(i): —Examples of conduct to which subsection (b)(9)(C)(i) does not apply are as follows:

(I)A defendant uses a credit card from a stolen wallet only to make a purchase. In such a case, the defendant has not used the stolen credit card to obtain another means of identification.

(II)A defendant forges another individual’s signature to cash a stolen check. Forging another individual’s signature is not producing another means of identification.

(D) Application of Subsection (b)(9)(C)(ii).—Subsection (b)(9)(C)(ii) applies in any case in which the offense involved the possession of 5 or more means of identification that unlawfully were produced or obtained, regardless of the number of individuals in whose name (or other identifying information) the means of identification were so produced or so obtained.

8. Chop Shop Enhancement under Subsection (b)(10).—Subsection (b)(10) provides a minimum offense level in the case of an ongoing, sophisticated operation (such as an auto theft ring or "chop shop") to steal vehicles or vehicle parts, or to receive stolen vehicles or vehicle parts. "Vehicles" refers to all forms of vehicles, including aircraft and watercraft.

9.Gross Receipts Enhancement under Subsection (b)(12)(A)

(A)In General.—For purposes of subsection (b)(12)(A), the defendant shall be considered to have derived more than $1,000,000 in gross receipts if the gross receipts to the defendant individually, rather than to all participants, exceeded $1,000,000.

(B)Definition.—"Gross receipts from the offense" includes all property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, which is obtained directly or indirectly as a result of such offense. See 18 U.S.C. § 982(a)(4).

10.Enhancement for Substantially Jeopardizing the Safety and Soundness of a Financial Institution under Subsection (b)(12)(B).—For purposes of subsection (b)(12)(B), an offense shall be considered to have substantially jeopardized the safety and soundness of a financial institution if, as a consequence of the offense, the institution (A) became insolvent; (B) substantially reduced benefits to pensioners or insureds; (C) was unable on demand to refund fully any deposit, payment, or investment; (D) was so depleted of its assets as to be forced to merge with another institution in order to continue active operations; or (E) was placed in substantial jeopardy of any of subdivisions (A) through (D) of this note.

11.Cross Reference in Subsection (c)(3).—Subsection (c)(3) provides a cross reference to another guideline in Chapter Two (Offense Conduct) in cases in which the defendant is convicted of a general fraud statute, and the count of conviction establishes an offense more aptly covered by another guideline. Sometimes, offenses involving fraudulent statements are prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. § 1001, or a similarly general statute, although the offense is also covered by a more specific statute. Examples include false entries regarding currency transactions, for which §2S1.3 (Structuring Transactions to Evade Reporting Requirements) likely would be more apt, and false statements to a customs officer, for which §2T3.1 (Evading Import Duties or Restrictions (Smuggling); Receiving or Trafficking in Smuggled Property) likely would be more apt. In certain other cases, the mail or wire fraud statutes, or other relatively broad statutes, are used primarily as jurisdictional bases for the prosecution of other offenses.

12.Continuing Financial Crimes Enterprise.—If the defendant is convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 225 (relating to a continuing financial crimes enterprise), the offense level is that applicable to the underlying series of offenses comprising the "continuing financial crimes enterprise".

13.Partially Completed Offenses.—In the case of a partially completed offense (e.g., an offense involving a completed theft or fraud that is part of a larger, attempted theft or fraud), the offense level is to be determined in accordance with the provisions of §2X1.1 (Attempt, Solicitation, or Conspiracy) whether the conviction is for the substantive offense, the inchoate offense (attempt, solicitation, or conspiracy), or both. See Application Note 4 of the Commentary to §2X1.1.

14.Multiple Count Indictments.—Some fraudulent schemes may result in multiple-count indictments, depending on the technical elements of the offense. The cumulative loss produced by a common scheme or course of conduct should be used in determining the offense level, regardless of the number of counts of conviction. See Chapter Three, Part D (Multiple Counts).

15.Departure Considerations

(A)Upward Departure Considerations.—There may be cases in which the offense level determined under this guideline substantially understates the seriousness of the offense. In such cases, an upward departure may be warranted. The following is a non-exhaustive list of factors that the court may consider in determining whether an upward departure is warranted:

(i)A primary objective of the offense was an aggravating, non-monetary objective. For example, a primary objective of the offense was to inflict emotional harm.

(ii)The offense caused or risked substantial non-monetary harm. For example, the offense caused physical harm, psychological harm, or severe emotional trauma, or resulted in a substantial invasion of a privacy interest (through, for example, the theft of personal information such as medical, educational, or financial records).

(iii)The offense involved a substantial amount of interest of any kind, finance charges, late fees, penalties, amounts based on an agreed-upon return or rate of return, or other similar costs, not included in the determination of loss for purposes of subsection (b)(1).

(iv)The offense created a risk of substantial loss beyond the loss determined for purposes of subsection (b)(1).

(v) The offense endangered the solvency or financial security of one or more victims.

(vi)In a case involving stolen information from a "protected computer", as defined in 18 U.S.C. § 1030(e)(2), the defendant sought the stolen information to further a broader criminal purpose.

(vii) In a case involving access devices or unlawfully produced or unlawfully obtained means of identification:

(I)The offense caused substantial harm to the victim’s reputation or credit record, or the victim suffered a substantial inconvenience related to repairing the victim’s reputation or a damaged credit record.

(II)An individual whose means of identification the defendant used to obtain unlawful means of identification is erroneously arrested or denied a job because an arrest record has been made in that individual’s name.

(III)The defendant produced or obtained numerous means of identification with respect to one individual and essentially assumed that individual’s identity.

(B)Downward Departure Consideration.—There may be cases in which the offense level determined under this guideline substantially overstates the seriousness of the offense. In such cases, a downward departure may be warranted.

Background: This guideline covers offenses involving theft, stolen property, property damage or destruction, fraud, forgery, and counterfeiting (other than offenses involving altered or counterfeit bearer obligations of the United States). It also covers offenses involving altering or removing motor vehicle identification numbers, trafficking in automobiles or automobile parts with altered or obliterated identification numbers, odometer laws and regulations, obstructing correspondence, the falsification of documents or records relating to a benefit plan covered by the Employment Retirement Income Security Act, and the failure to maintain, or falsification of, documents required by the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act.

Because federal fraud statutes often are broadly written, a single pattern of offense conduct usually can be prosecuted under several code sections, as a result of which the offense of conviction may be somewhat arbitrary. Furthermore, most fraud statutes cover a broad range of conduct with extreme variation in severity. The specific offense characteristics and cross references contained in this guideline are designed with these considerations in mind.

The Commission has determined that, ordinarily, the sentences of defendants convicted of federal offenses should reflect the nature and magnitude of the loss caused or intended by their crimes. Accordingly, along with other relevant factors under the guidelines, loss serves as a measure of the seriousness of the offense and the defendant’s relative culpability and is a principal factor in determining the offense level under this guideline.

Theft from the person of another, such as pickpocketing or non-forcible purse-snatching, receives an enhanced sentence because of the increased risk of physical injury. This guideline does not include an enhancement for thefts from the person by means of force or fear; such crimes are robberies and are covered under §2B3.1 (Robbery).

A minimum offense level of level 14 is provided for offenses involving an organized scheme to steal vehicles or vehicle parts. Typically, the scope of such activity is substantial, but the value of the property may be particularly difficult to ascertain in individual cases because the stolen property is rapidly resold or otherwise disposed of in the course of the offense. Therefore, the specific offense characteristic of "organized scheme" is used as an alternative to "loss" in setting a minimum offense level.

Use of false pretenses involving charitable causes and government agencies enhances the sentences of defendants who take advantage of victims’ trust in government or law enforcement agencies or the generosity and charitable motives of victims. Taking advantage of a victim’s self-interest does not mitigate the seriousness of fraudulent conduct; rather, defendants who exploit victims’ charitable impulses or trust in government create particular social harm. In a similar vein, a defendant who has been subject to civil or administrative proceedings for the same or similar fraudulent conduct demonstrates aggravated criminal intent and is deserving of additional punishment for not conforming with the requirements of judicial process or orders issued by federal, state, or local administrative agencies.

Offenses that involve the use of financial transactions or financial accounts outside the United States in an effort to conceal illicit profits and criminal conduct involve a particularly high level of sophistication and complexity. These offenses are difficult to detect and require costly investigations and prosecutions. Diplomatic processes often must be used to secure testimony and evidence beyond the jurisdiction of United States courts. Consequently, a minimum offense level of level 12 is provided for these offenses.

Subsection (b)(6) implements the instruction to the Commission in section 2 of Public Law 105–101.

Subsection (b)(7)(D) implements, in a broader form, the directive in section 3 of the College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act of 2000, Public Law 106–420.

Subsection (b)(8) implements, in a broader form, the instruction to the Commission in section 6(c)(2) of Public Law 105–184.

Subsections (b)(9)(A) and(B) implement the instruction to the Commission in section 4 of the Wireless Telephone Protection Act, Public Law 105–172.

Subsection (b)(9)(C) implements the directive to the Commission in section 4 of the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998, Public Law 105–318. This subsection focuses principally on an aggravated form of identity theft known as "affirmative identity theft" or "breeding", in which a defendant uses another individual’s name, social security number, or some other form of identification (the "means of identification") to "breed" (i.e., produce or obtain) new or additional forms of identification. Because 18 U.S.C. § 1028(d) broadly defines "means of identification", the new or additional forms of identification can include items such as a driver’s license, a credit card, or a bank loan. This subsection provides a minimum offense level of level 12, in part because of the seriousness of the offense. The minimum offense level accounts for the fact that the means of identification that were "bred" (i.e., produced or obtained) often are within the defendant’s exclusive control, making it difficult for the individual victim to detect that the victim’s identity has been "stolen." Generally, the victim does not become aware of the offense until certain harms have already occurred (e.g., a damaged credit rating or an inability to obtain a loan). The minimum offense level also accounts for the non-monetary harm associated with these types of offenses, much of which may be difficult or impossible to quantify (e.g., harm to the individual’s reputation or credit rating, inconvenience, and other difficulties resulting from the offense). The legislative history of the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998 indicates that Congress was especially concerned with providing increased punishment for this type of harm.

Subsection (b)(11)(B) implements, in a broader form, the instruction to the Commission in section 110512 of Public Law 103–322.

Subsection (b)(12)(A) implements, in a broader form, the instruction to the Commission in section 2507 of Public Law 101–647.

Subsection (b)(12)(B) implements, in a broader form, the instruction to the Commission in section 961(m) of Public Law 101–73.

Subsection (d) implements the instruction to the Commission in section 805(c) of Public Law 104–132.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 7); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 99-101 and 303); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 312, 317, and 361); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendments 364 and 393); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendments 481 and 482); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 512); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 551); November 1, 1998 (see Appendix C, amendment 576); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 596); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2B1.2. [Deleted]

Historical Note: Section 2B1.2 (Receiving, Transporting, Transferring, Transmitting, or Possessing Stolen Property), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 8), June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 9), November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 102-104), and November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 312 and 361), was deleted by consolidation with §2B1.1 effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481).

§2B1.3. [Deleted]

Historical Note: Section 2B1.3 (Property Damage or Destruction), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 10), November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 312 and 313), November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 551), November 1, 1998 (see Appendix C, amendment 576), was deleted by consolidation with §2B1.1 effective November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2B1.4. Insider Trading

(a) Base Offense Level: 8

(b)Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the gain resulting from the offense exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 15 U.S.C. § 78j and 17 C.F.R. § 240.10b-5. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Note:

1. Application of Subsection of §3B1.3.—Section 3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill) should be applied only if the defendant occupied and abused a position of special trust. Examples might include a corporate president or an attorney who misused information regarding a planned but unannounced takeover attempt. It typically would not apply to an ordinary "tippee".

Background: This guideline applies to certain violations of Rule 10b-5 that are commonly referred to as "insider trading". Insider trading is treated essentially as a sophisticated fraud. Because the victims and their losses are difficult if not impossible to identify, the gain, i.e., the total increase in value realized through trading in securities by the defendant and persons acting in concert with the defendant or to whom the defendant provided inside information, is employed instead of the victims’ losses.

Certain other offenses, e.g., 7 U.S.C. § 13(e), that involve misuse of inside information for personal gain also appropriately may be covered by this guideline.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

* * * * *

2. BURGLARY AND TRESPASS

§2B2.1. Burglary of a Residence or a Structure Other than a Residence

(a) Base Offense Level:

(1) 17, if a residence; or

(2) 12, if a structure other than a residence.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense involved more than minimal planning, increase by 2 levels.

(2) If the loss exceeded $2,500, increase the offense level as follows:

  Loss (Apply the Greatest) Increase in Level
(A) $2,500 or less no increase
(B) More than $2,500 add 1
(C) More than $10,000 add 2
(D) More than $50,000 add 3
(E) More than $250,000 add 4
(F) More than $800,000 add 5
(G) More than $1,500,000 add 6
(H) More than $2,500,000 add 7
(I) More than $5,000,000 add 8.

(3) If a firearm, destructive device, or controlled substance was taken, or if the taking of such item was an object of the offense, increase by 1 level.

(4) If a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was possessed, increase by 2 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 1153, 2113(a), 2115, 2117, 2118(b). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Firearm," "destructive device," and "dangerous weapon" are defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

2. "Loss" means the value of the property taken, damaged, or destroyed.

3. Subsection (b)(4) does not apply to possession of a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) that was stolen during the course of the offense.

4. More than Minimal Planning.—"More than minimal planning" means more planning than is typical for commission of the offense in a simple form. "More than minimal planning" also exists if significant affirmative steps were taken to conceal the offense, other than conduct to which §3C1.1 (Obstructing or Impeding the Administration of Justice) applies. "More than minimal planning" shall be considered to be present in any case involving repeated acts over a period of time, unless it is clear that each instance was purely opportune. For example, checking the area to make sure no witnesses were present would not alone constitute more than minimal planning. By contrast, obtaining building plans to plot a particular course of entry, or disabling an alarm system, would constitute more than minimal planning.

Background: The base offense level for residential burglary is higher than for other forms of burglary because of the increased risk of physical and psychological injury. Weapon possession, but not use, is a specific offense characteristic because use of a weapon (including to threaten) ordinarily would make the offense robbery. Weapon use would be a ground for upward departure.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 11); June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 12); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 105 and 106); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 315 and 361); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2B2.2. [Deleted]

Historical Note: Section 2B2.2 (Burglary of Other Structures), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 13), November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 107), and November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 315 and 361), was deleted by consolidation with §2B2.1 effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481).

§2B2.3. Trespass

(a) Base Offense Level: 4

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the trespass occurred at a secured government facility, a nuclear energy facility, or a residence, increase by 2 levels.

(2) If a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was possessed, increase by 2 levels.

(3) If (A) the offense involved invasion of a protected computer; and (B) the loss resulting from the invasion (i) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (ii) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(3); 42 U.S.C. § 7270b. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. For purposes of this guideline—

"Firearm" and "dangerous weapon" are defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

"Protected computer" means a computer described in 18 U.S.C. § 1030(e)(2)(A) or (B).

2. Valuation of loss is discussed in the Commentary to §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud).

Background: Most trespasses punishable under federal law involve federal lands or property. The trespass section provides an enhancement for offenses involving trespass on secured government installations, such as nuclear facilities, to protect a significant federal interest. Additionally, an enhancement is provided for trespass at a residence.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 108 and 109); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 551); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

* * * * *

3. ROBBERY, EXTORTION, AND BLACKMAIL

§2B3.1. Robbery

(a) Base Offense Level: 20

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the property of a financial institution or post office was taken, or if the taking of such property was an object of the offense, increase by 2 levels.

 (2)(A) If a firearm was discharged, increase by 7 levels; (B) if a firearm was otherwise used, increase by 6 levels; (C) if a firearm was brandished or possessed, increase by 5 levels; (D) if a dangerous weapon was otherwise used, increase by 4 levels; (E) if a dangerous weapon was brandished or possessed, increase by 3 levels; or (F) if a threat of death was made, increase by 2 levels.

(3) If any victim sustained bodily injury, increase the offense level according to the seriousness of the injury:

  Degree of Bodily Injury Increase in Level
(A) Bodily Injury add 2
(B) Serious Bodily Injury add 4
(C) More than $50,000 add 6
(D) If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (A) and (B), add 3 levels; or

(E)

If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (B) and (C), add 5 levels.

(G)

Provided, however, that the cumulative adjustments from (2) and (3) shall not exceed 11 levels.

(4)(A) If any person was abducted to facilitate commission of the offense or to facilitate escape, increase by 4 levels; or (B) if any person was physically restrained to facilitate commission of the offense or to facilitate escape, increase by 2 levels.

(5)If the offense involved carjacking, increase by 2 levels.

(6)If a firearm, destructive device, or controlled substance was taken, or if the taking of such item was an object of the offense, increase by 1 level.

(7)If the loss exceeded $10,000, increase the offense level as follows:

  Loss (Apply the Greatest) Increase in Level
(A) $10,000 or less no increase
(B) More than $10,000 add 1
(C) More than $50,000 add 2
(D) More than $250,000 add 3
(E) More than $800,000 add 4
(F) More than $1,500,000 add 5
(G) More than $2,500,000 add 6
(H) More than $5,000,000 add 7.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If a victim was killed under circumstances that would constitute murder under 18 U.S.C. § 1111 had such killing taken place within the territorial or maritime jurisdiction of the United States, apply §2A1.1 (First Degree Murder).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 1951, 2113, 2114, 2118(a), 2119. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Firearm," "destructive device," "dangerous weapon," "otherwise used," "brandished," "bodily injury," "serious bodily injury," "permanent or life-threatening bodily injury," "abducted," and "physically restrained" are defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

"Carjacking" means the taking or attempted taking of a motor vehicle from the person or presence of another by force and violence or by intimidation.

2. Consistent with Application Note 1(d)(ii) of §1B1.1 (Application Instructions), an object shall be considered to be a dangerous weapon for purposes of subsection (b)(2)(E) if (A) the object closely resembles an instrument capable of inflicting death or serious bodily injury; or (B) the defendant used the object in a manner that created the impression that the object was an instrument capable of inflicting death or serious bodily injury (e.g., a defendant wrapped a hand in a towel during a bank robbery to create the appearance of a gun).

3. "Loss" means the value of the property taken, damaged, or destroyed.

4. The combined adjustments for weapon involvement and injury are limited to a maximum enhancement of 11 levels.

5. If the defendant intended to murder the victim, an upward departure may be warranted; see §2A2.1 (Assault with Intent to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder).

6. "A threat of death," as used in subsection (b)(2)(F), may be in the form of an oral or written statement, act, gesture, or combination thereof. Accordingly, the defendant does not have to state expressly his intent to kill the victim in order for the enhancement to apply. For example, an oral or written demand using words such as "Give me the money or I will kill you", "Give me the money or I will pull the pin on the grenade I have in my pocket", "Give me the money or I will shoot you", "Give me your money or else (where the defendant draws his hand across his throat in a slashing motion)", or "Give me the money or you are dead" would constitute a threat of death. The court should consider that the intent of this provision is to provide an increased offense level for cases in which the offender(s) engaged in conduct that would instill in a reasonable person, who is a victim of the offense, a fear of death.

Background: Possession or use of a weapon, physical injury, and unlawful restraint sometimes occur during a robbery. The guideline provides for a range of enhancements where these factors are present.

Although in pre-guidelines practice the amount of money taken in robbery cases affected sentence length, its importance was small compared to that of the other harm involved. Moreover, because of the relatively high base offense level for robbery, an increase of 1 or 2 levels brings about a considerable increase in sentence length in absolute terms. Accordingly, the gradations for property loss increase more slowly than for simple property offenses.

The guideline provides an enhancement for robberies where a victim was forced to accompany the defendant to another location, or was physically restrained by being tied, bound, or locked up.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendments 14 and 15); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 110 and 111); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 314, 315, and 361); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 365); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 483); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendments 545 and 552); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 601); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2B3.2. Extortion by Force or Threat of Injury or Serious Damage

(a) Base Offense Level: 18

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense involved an express or implied threat of death, bodily injury, or kidnapping, increase by 2 levels.

(2) If the greater of the amount demanded or the loss to the victim exceeded $10,000, increase by the corresponding number of levels from the table in §2B3.1(b)(7).

(3)(A)(i) If a firearm was discharged, increase by 7 levels; (ii) if a firearm was otherwise used, increase by 6 levels; (iii) if a firearm was brandished or possessed, increase by 5 levels; (iv) if a dangerous weapon was otherwise used, increase by 4 levels; or (v) if a dangerous weapon was brandished or possessed, increase by 3 levels; or

(B) If the offense involved preparation to carry out a threat of (i) death, (ii) serious bodily injury, (iii) kidnapping, or (iv) product tampering; or if the participant(s) otherwise demonstrated the ability to carry out such threat, increase by 3 levels.

(4) If any victim sustained bodily injury, increase the offense level according to the seriousness of the injury:

  Degree of Bodily Injury Increase in Level
(A) Bodily Injury add 2
(B) Serious Bodily Injury add 4
(C) More than $50,000 add 6
(D) If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (A) and (B), add 3 levels; or

(E)

If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (B) and (C), add 5 levels.

(G)

Provided, however, that the cumulative adjustments from (2) and (3) shall not exceed 11 levels.

(5)(A) If any person was abducted to facilitate commission of the offense or to facilitate escape, increase by 4 levels; or (B) if any person was physically restrained to facilitate commission of the offense or to facilitate escape, increase by 2 levels.

(c) Cross References

(1) If a victim was killed under circumstances that would constitute murder under 18 U.S.C. § 1111 had such killing taken place within the territorial or maritime jurisdiction of the United States, apply §2A1.1 (First Degree Murder).

(2) If the offense was tantamount to attempted murder, apply §2A2.1 (Assault with Intent to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder) if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 875(b), 876, 877, 1030(a)(7), 1951. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Firearm," "dangerous weapon," "otherwise used," "brandished," "bodily injury," "serious bodily injury," "permanent or life-threatening bodily injury," "abducted," and "physically restrained" are defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

2. This guideline applies if there was any threat, express or implied, that reasonably could be interpreted as one to injure a person or physically damage property, or any comparably serious threat, such as to drive an enterprise out of business. Even if the threat does not in itself imply violence, the possibility of violence or serious adverse consequences may be inferred from the circumstances of the threat or the reputation of the person making it. An ambiguous threat, such as "pay up or else," or a threat to cause labor problems, ordinarily should be treated under this section.

3. Guidelines for bribery involving public officials are found in Part C, Offenses Involving Public Officials. "Extortion under color of official right," which usually is solicitation of a bribe by a public official, is covered under §2C1.1 unless there is use of force or a threat that qualifies for treatment under this section. Certain other extortion offenses are covered under the provisions of Part E, Offenses Involving Criminal Enterprises and Racketeering.

4. The combined adjustments for weapon involvement and injury are limited to a maximum enhancement of 11 levels.

5. "Loss to the victim," as used in subsection (b)(2), means any demand paid plus any additional consequential loss from the offense (e.g., the cost of defensive measures taken in direct response to the offense).

6. In certain cases, an extortionate demand may be accompanied by conduct that does not qualify as a display of a dangerous weapon under subsection (b)(3)(A)(v) but is nonetheless similar in seriousness, demonstrating the defendant’s preparation or ability to carry out the threatened harm (e.g., an extortionate demand containing a threat to tamper with a consumer product accompanied by a workable plan showing how the product’s tamper-resistant seals could be defeated, or a threat to kidnap a person accompanied by information showing study of that person’s daily routine). Subsection (b)(3)(B) addresses such cases.

7. If the offense involved the threat of death or serious bodily injury to numerous victims (e.g., in the case of a plan to derail a passenger train or poison consumer products), an upward departure may be warranted.

8. If the offense involved organized criminal activity, or a threat to a family member of the victim, an upward departure may be warranted.

Background: The Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1951, prohibits extortion, attempted extortion, and conspiracy to extort. It provides for a maximum term of imprisonment of twenty years. 18 U.S.C. §§ 875-877 prohibit communication of extortionate demands through various means. The maximum penalty under these statutes varies from two to twenty years. Violations of 18 U.S.C. § 875 involve threats or demands transmitted by interstate commerce. Violations of 18 U.S.C. § 876 involve the use of the United States mails to communicate threats, while violations of 18 U.S.C. § 877 involve mailing threatening communications from foreign countries. This guideline also applies to offenses under 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(7) involving a threat to impair the operation of a "protected computer."

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 112, 113, and 303); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 316); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 366); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 479); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 551); November 1, 1998 (see Appendix C, amendment 586); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 601).

§2B3.3. Blackmail and Similar Forms of Extortion

(a) Base Offense Level: 9

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the greater of the amount obtained or demanded (A) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (B) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(c) Cross References

(1) If the offense involved extortion under color of official right, apply §2C1.1 (Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Bribe; Extortion Under Color of Official Right).

(2) If the offense involved extortion by force or threat of injury or serious damage, apply §2B3.2 (Extortion by Force or Threat of Injury or Serious Damage).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 873, 875-877, 1951. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Note:

1. This section applies only to blackmail and similar forms of extortion where there clearly is no threat of violence to person or property. "Blackmail" (18 U.S.C. § 873) is defined as a threat to disclose a violation of United States law unless money or some other item of value is given.

Background: Under 18 U.S.C. § 873, the maximum term of imprisonment authorized for blackmail is one year. Extortionate threats to injure a reputation, or other threats that are less serious than those covered by §2B3.2, may also be prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. §§ 875-877, which carry higher maximum sentences.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 114); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 479); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

* * * * *

4. COMMERCIAL BRIBERY AND KICKBACKS

§2B4.1. Bribery in Procurement of Bank Loan and Other Commercial Bribery

(a) Base Offense Level: 8

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the greater of the value of the bribe or the improper benefit to be conferred (A) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (B) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(2) If the offense --

(A) substantially jeopardized the safety and soundness of a financial institution; or

(B) affected a financial institution and the defendant derived more than $1,000,000 in gross receipts from the offense,

increase by 4 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 24, increase to level 24.

(c) Special Instruction for Fines - Organizations

(1) In lieu of the pecuniary loss under subsection (a)(3) of §8C2.4 (Base Fine), use the greatest of: (A) the value of the unlawful payment; (B) the value of the benefit received or to be received in return for the unlawful payment; or (C) the consequential damages resulting from the unlawful payment.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 15 U.S.C. §§ 78dd-1, 78dd-2; 18 U.S.C. §§ 215, 224, 225; 26 U.S.C. §§ 9012(e), 9042(d); 41 U.S.C. §§ 53, 54; 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395nn(b)(1), (2), 1396h(b)(1),(2); 49 U.S.C. § 11902. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. This guideline covers commercial bribery offenses and kickbacks that do not involve officials of federal, state, or local government. See Part C, Offenses Involving Public Officials, if governmental officials are involved.  

2. The "value of the improper benefit to be conferred" refers to the value of the action to be taken or effected in return for the bribe. See Commentary to §2C1.1 (Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Bribe; Extortion Under Color of Official Right).

3. "Financial institution," as used in this guideline, is defined to include any institution described in 18 U.S.C. §§ 20, 656, 657, 1005-1007, and 1014; any state or foreign bank, trust company, credit union, insurance company, investment company, mutual fund, savings (building and loan) association, union or employee pension fund; any health, medical or hospital insurance association; brokers and dealers registered, or required to be registered, with the Securities and Exchange Commission; futures commodity merchants and commodity pool operators registered, or required to be registered, with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; and any similar entity, whether or not insured by the federal government. "Union or employee pension fund" and "any health, medical, or hospital insurance association," as used above, primarily include large pension funds that serve many individuals (e.g., pension funds of large national and international organizations, unions, and corporations doing substantial interstate business), and associations that undertake to provide pension, disability, or other benefits (e.g., medical or hospitalization insurance) to large numbers of persons.

4. An offense shall be deemed to have "substantially jeopardized the safety and soundness of a financial institution" if, as a consequence of the offense, the institution became insolvent; substantially reduced benefits to pensioners or insureds; was unable on demand to refund fully any deposit, payment, or investment; was so depleted of its assets as to be forced to merge with another institution in order to continue active operations; or was placed in substantial jeopardy of any of the above.

5. "The defendant derived more than $1,000,000 in gross receipts from the offense," as used in subsection (b)(2)(B), generally means that the gross receipts to the defendant individually, rather than to all participants, exceeded $1,000,000. "Gross receipts from the offense" includes all property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, which is obtained directly or indirectly as a result of such offense. See 18 U.S.C. § 982(a)(4).

6. If the defendant is convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 225 (relating to a continuing financial crimes enterprise), the offense level is that applicable to the underlying series of offenses comprising the "continuing financial crimes enterprise."

Background: This guideline applies to violations of various federal bribery statutes that do not involve governmental officials. The base offense level is to be enhanced based upon the value of the unlawful payment or the value of the action to be taken or effected in return for the unlawful payment, whichever is greater.

One of the more commonly prosecuted offenses to which this guideline applies is offering or accepting a fee in connection with procurement of a loan from a financial institution in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 215.

As with non-commercial bribery, this guideline considers not only the amount of the bribe but also the value of the action received in return. Thus, for example, if a bank officer agreed to the offer of a $25,000 bribe to approve a $250,000 loan under terms for which the applicant would not otherwise qualify, the court, in increasing the offense level, would use the greater of the $25,000 bribe, and the savings in interest over the life of the loan compared with alternative loan terms. If a gambler paid a player $5,000 to shave points in a nationally televised basketball game, the value of the action to the gambler would be the amount that he and his confederates won or stood to gain. If that amount could not be estimated, the amount of the bribe would be used to determine the appropriate increase in offense level.

This guideline also applies to making prohibited payments to induce the award of subcontracts on federal projects for which the maximum term of imprisonment authorized was recently increased from two to ten years. 41 U.S.C. §§ 51, 53-54. Violations of 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395nn(b)(1) and (b)(2), involve the offer or acceptance of a payment to refer an individual for services or items paid for under the Medicare program. Similar provisions in 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396h(b)(1) and (b)(2) cover the offer or acceptance of a payment for referral to the Medicaid program.

This guideline also applies to violations of law involving bribes and kickbacks in expenses incurred for a presidential nominating convention or presidential election campaign. These offenses are prohibited under 26 U.S.C. §§ 9012(e) and 9042(d), which apply to candidates for President and Vice President whose campaigns are eligible for federal matching funds.

This guideline also applies to violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 78dd-1 and 78dd-2, and to violations of 18 U.S.C. § 224, sports bribery, as well as certain violations of the Interstate Commerce Act.

Subsection (b)(2)(A) implements, in a broader form, the instruction to the Commission in section 961(m) of Public Law 101-73.

Subsection (b)(2)(B) implements the instruction to the Commission in section 2507 of Public Law 101-647.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 317); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendments 364 and 422); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 468); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 553); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

* * * * *

5. COUNTERFEITING AND INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT OR TRADEMARK

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481).

§2B5.1. Offenses Involving Counterfeit Bearer Obligations of the United States

(a) Base Offense Level: 9

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the face value of the counterfeit items (A) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (B) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(2) If the defendant (A) manufactured or produced any counterfeit obligation or security of the United States, or possessed or had custody of or control over a counterfeiting device or materials used for counterfeiting; or (B) controlled or possessed (i) counterfeiting paper similar to a distinctive paper; or (ii) a feature or device essentially identical to a distinctive counterfeit deterrent, increase by 2 levels.

(3) If subsection (b)(2)(A) applies, and the offense level determined under that subsection is less than level 15, increase to level 15.

(4) If a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was possessed in connection with the offense, increase by 2 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 13, increase to level 13.

(5)If any part of the offense was committed outside the United States, increase by 2 levels.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 470-474A, 476, 477, 500, 501, 1003. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline:

"Distinctive counterfeit deterrent" and "distinctive paper" have the meaning given those terms in 18 U.S.C. § 474A(c)(2) and (1), respectively.

"United States" means each of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa.

2. Applicability to Counterfeit Bearer Obligations of the United States.— This guideline applies to counterfeiting of United States currency and coins, food stamps, postage stamps, treasury bills, bearer bonds and other items that generally could be described as bearer obligations of the United States, i.e., that are not made out to a specific payee.

3. Inapplicability to Genuine but Fraudulently Altered Instruments.—"Counterfeit," as used in this section, means an instrument that purports to be genuine but is not, because it has been falsely made or manufactured in its entirety. Offenses involving genuine instruments that have been altered are covered under §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud).

4. Inapplicability to Certain Obviously Counterfeit Items.—Subsection (b)(2)(A) does not apply to persons who produce items that are so obviously counterfeit that they are unlikely to be accepted even if subjected to only minimal scrutiny.

Background: Possession of counterfeiting devices to copy obligations (including securities) of the United States is treated as an aggravated form of counterfeiting because of the sophistication and planning involved in manufacturing counterfeit obligations and the public policy interest in protecting the integrity of government obligations. Similarly, an enhancement is provided for a defendant who produces, rather than merely passes, the counterfeit items.

Subsection (b)(4) implements, in a broader form, the instruction to the Commission in section 110512 of Public Law 103-322.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 16); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 115); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 513); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 554); November 1, 1998 (see Appendix C, amendment 587); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendments 595 and 605); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendments 617 and 618).

§2B5.2. [Deleted]

Historical Note: Section 2B5.2 (Forgery; Offenses Involving Altered or Counterfeit Instruments Other than Counterfeit Bearer Obligations of the United States), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 17) and November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 116), was deleted by consolidation with §2F1.1 effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481).

§2B5.3. Criminal Infringement of Copyright or Trademark

(a) Base Offense Level: 8

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the infringement amount (A) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (B) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(2) If the offense involved the manufacture, importation, or uploading of infringing items, increase by 2 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 12, increase to level 12.

(3) If the offense was not committed for commercial advantage or private financial gain, decrease by 2 levels, but the resulting offense level shall be not less than level 8.

(4) If the offense involved (A) the conscious or reckless risk of serious bodily injury; or (B) possession of a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) in connection with the offense, increase by 2 levels. If the resulting offense level is less than level 13, increase to level 13.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 17 U.S.C. § 506(a); 18 U.S.C. §§ 2318-2320, 2511. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline:

"Commercial advantage or private financial gain" means the receipt, or expectation of receipt, of anything of value, including other protected works.

"Infringed item" means the copyrighted or trademarked item with respect to which the crime against intellectual property was committed.

"Infringing item" means the item that violates the copyright or trademark laws.

"Uploading" means making an infringing item available on the Internet or a similar electronic bulletin board with the intent to enable other persons to download or otherwise copy, or have access to, the infringing item.

2.Determination of Infringement Amount.—This note applies to the determination of the infringement amount for purposes of subsection (b)(1).

(A) Use of Retail Value of Infringed Item.—The infringement amount is the retail value of the infringed item, multiplied by the number of infringing items, in a case involving any of the following:

(i) The infringing item (I) is, or appears to a reasonably informed purchaser to be, identical or substantially equivalent to the infringed item; or (II) is a digital or electronic reproduction of the infringed item.

(ii)The retail price of the infringing item is not less than 75% of the retail price of the infringed item.

(iii)The retail value of the infringing item is difficult or impossible to determine without unduly complicating or prolonging the sentencing proceeding.

(iv)The offense involves the illegal interception of a satellite cable transmission in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2511. (In a case involving such an offense, the "retail value of the infringed item" is the price the user of the transmission would have paid to lawfully receive that transmission, and the "infringed item" is the satellite transmission rather than the intercepting device.)

(v)The retail value of the infringed item provides a more accurate assessment of the pecuniary harm to the copyright or trademark owner than does the retail value of the infringing item.

(B)Use of Retail Value of Infringing Item.—The infringement amount is the retail value of the infringing item, multiplied by the number of infringing items, in any case not covered by subdivision (A) of this Application Note, including a case involving the unlawful recording of a musical performance in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2319A.

(C)Retail Value Defined.—For purposes of this Application Note, the "retail value" of an infringed item or an infringing item is the retail price of that item in the market in which it is sold.

(D)Determination of Infringement Amount in Cases Involving a Variety of Infringing Items.—In a case involving a variety of infringing items, the infringement amount is the sum of all calculations made for those items under subdivisions (A) and (B) of this Application Note. For example, if the defendant sold both counterfeit videotapes that are identical in quality to the infringed videotapes and obviously inferior counterfeit handbags, the infringement amount, for purposes of subsection (b)(1), is the sum of the infringement amount calculated with respect to the counterfeit videotapes under subdivision (A)(i) (i.e., the quantity of the infringing videotapes multiplied by the retail value of the infringed videotapes) and the infringement amount calculated with respect to the counterfeit handbags under subdivision (B) (i.e., the quantity of the infringing handbags multiplied by the retail value of the infringing handbags).

3. Uploading.—With respect to uploading, subsection (b)(2) applies only to uploading with the intent to enable other persons to download or otherwise copy, or have access to, the infringing item. For example, this subsection applies in the case of illegally uploading copyrighted software to an Internet site, but it does not apply in the case of downloading or installing that software on a hard drive on the defendant’s personal computer.

4. Application of §3B1.3.—If the defendant de-encrypted or otherwise circumvented a technological security measure to gain initial access to an infringed item, an adjustment under §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill) shall apply.

5. Upward Departure Considerations.—If the offense level determined under this guideline substantially understates the seriousness of the offense, an upward departure may be warranted. The following is a non-exhaustive list of factors that the court may consider in determining whether an upward departure may be warranted:

(A)The offense involved substantial harm to the reputation of the copyright or trademark owner.

(B)The offense was committed in connection with, or in furtherance of, the criminal activities of a national, or international, organized criminal enterprise.

Background: This guideline treats copyright and trademark violations much like theft and fraud. Similar to the sentences for theft and fraud offenses, the sentences for defendants convicted of intellectual property offenses should reflect the nature and magnitude of the pecuniary harm caused by their crimes. Accordingly, similar to the loss enhancement in the theft and fraud guideline, the infringement amount in subsection (b)(1) serves as a principal factor in determining the offense level for intellectual property offenses.

Subsection (b)(1) implements section 2(g) of the No Electronic Theft (NET) Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–147, by using the retail value of the infringed item, multiplied by the number of infringing items, to determine the pecuniary harm for cases in which use of the retail value of the infringed item is a reasonable estimate of that harm. For cases referred to in Application Note 2(B), the Commission determined that use of the retail value of the infringed item would overstate the pecuniary harm or otherwise be inappropriate. In these types of cases, use of the retail value of the infringing item, multiplied by the number of those items, is a more reasonable estimate of the resulting pecuniary harm.

Section 2511 of title 18, United States Code, as amended by the Electronic Communications Act of 1986, prohibits the interception of satellite transmission for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial gain. Such violations are similar to copyright offenses and are therefore covered by this guideline.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendments 481 and 482); May 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 590); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 593); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2B5.4. [Deleted]

Historical Note: Section 2B5.4 (Criminal Infringement of Trademark), effective November 1, 1987, was deleted by consolidation with §2B5.3 effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481).

* * * * *

6. MOTOR VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS

§2B6.1. Altering or Removing Motor Vehicle Identification Numbers, or Trafficking in Motor Vehicles or Parts with Altered or Obliterated Identification Numbers

(a) Base Offense Level: 8

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the retail value of the motor vehicles or parts (A) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (B) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(2) If the defendant was in the business of receiving and selling stolen property, increase by 2 levels.

(3) If the offense involved an organized scheme to steal vehicles or vehicle parts, or to receive stolen vehicles or vehicle parts, and the offense level as determined above is less than level 14, increase to level 14.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 511, 553(a)(2), 2321.

Application Notes:

1. Subsection (b)(3), referring to an "organized scheme to steal vehicles or vehicle parts, or to receive stolen vehicles or vehicle parts," provides an alternative minimum measure of loss in the case of an ongoing, sophisticated operation such as an auto theft ring or "chop shop." "Vehicles" refers to all forms of vehicles, including aircraft and watercraft. See Commentary to §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud).

2. The term "increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount," as used in subsection (b)(1), refers to the number of levels corresponding to the retail value of the motor vehicles or parts involved.

Background: The statutes covered in this guideline prohibit altering or removing motor vehicle identification numbers, importing or exporting, or trafficking in motor vehicles or parts knowing that the identification numbers have been removed, altered, tampered with, or obliterated. Violations of 18 U.S.C. §§ 511 and 553(a)(2) carry a maximum of five years imprisonment. Violations of 18 U.S.C. § 2321 carry a maximum of ten years imprisonment.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 117-119); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 482); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

PART C - OFFENSES INVOLVING PUBLIC OFFICIALS

Introductory Commentary

The Commission believes that pre-guidelines sentencing practice did not adequately reflect the seriousness of public corruption offenses. Therefore, these guidelines provide for sentences that are considerably higher than average pre-guidelines practice.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987.

§2C1.1. Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Bribe; Extortion Under Color of Official Right

(a) Base Offense Level: 10

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense involved more than one bribe or extortion, increase by 2 levels.

(2)(If more than one applies, use the greater):

(A) If the value of the payment, the benefit received or to be received in return for the payment, or the loss to the government from the offense, whichever is greatest (i) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (ii) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(B) If the offense involved a payment for the purpose of influencing an elected official or any official holding a high-level decision-making or sensitive position, increase by 8 levels.

(c) Cross References

(1) If the offense was committed for the purpose of facilitating the commission of another criminal offense, apply the offense guideline applicable to a conspiracy to commit that other offense if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(2) If the offense was committed for the purpose of concealing, or obstructing justice in respect to, another criminal offense, apply §2X3.1 (Accessory After the Fact) or §2J1.2 (Obstruction of Justice), as appropriate, in respect to that other offense if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(3) If the offense involved a threat of physical injury or property destruction, apply §2B3.2 (Extortion by Force or Threat of Injury or Serious Damage) if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(d)Special Instruction for Fines - Organizations

(1) In lieu of the pecuniary loss under subsection (a)(3) of §8C2.4 (Base Fine), use the greatest of: (A) the value of the unlawful payment; (B) the value of the benefit received or to be received in return for the unlawful payment; or (C) the consequential damages resulting from the unlawful payment.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 201(b)(1), (2), 872, 1951. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Official holding a high-level decision-making or sensitive position" includes, for example, prosecuting attorneys, judges, agency administrators, supervisory law enforcement officers, and other governmental officials with similar levels of responsibility.

2. "Loss", for purposes of subsection (b)(2)(A), shall be determined in accordance with Application Note 2 of the Commentary to §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud). The value of "the benefit received or to be received" means the net value of such benefit. Examples: (1) A government employee, in return for a $500 bribe, reduces the price of a piece of surplus property offered for sale by the government from $10,000 to $2,000; the value of the benefit received is $8,000. (2) A $150,000 contract on which $20,000 profit was made was awarded in return for a bribe; the value of the benefit received is $20,000. Do not deduct the value of the bribe itself in computing the value of the benefit received or to be received. In the above examples, therefore, the value of the benefit received would be the same regardless of the value of the bribe.

3. Do not apply §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill) except where the offense level is determined under §2C1.1(c)(1), (2), or (3). In such cases, an adjustment from §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill) may apply.

4. In some cases the monetary value of the unlawful payment may not be known or may not adequately reflect the seriousness of the offense. For example, a small payment may be made in exchange for the falsification of inspection records for a shipment of defective parachutes or the destruction of evidence in a major narcotics case. In part, this issue is addressed by the adjustments in §2C1.1(b)(2), and §2C1.1(c)(1), (2), and (3). However, in cases in which the seriousness of the offense is still not adequately reflected, an upward departure is warranted. See Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).

5. Where the court finds that the defendant’s conduct was part of a systematic or pervasive corruption of a governmental function, process, or office that may cause loss of public confidence in government, an upward departure may be warranted. See Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).

6. Subsection (b)(1) provides an adjustment for offenses involving more than one incident of either bribery or extortion. Related payments that, in essence, constitute a single incident of bribery or extortion (e.g., a number of installment payments for a single action) are to be treated as a single bribe or extortion, even if charged in separate counts.

7. For the purposes of determining whether to apply the cross references in this section, the "resulting offense level" means the greater final offense level (i.e., the offense level determined by taking into account both the Chapter Two offense level and any applicable adjustments from Chapter Three, Parts A-D).

Background: This section applies to a person who offers or gives a bribe for a corrupt purpose, such as inducing a public official to participate in a fraud or to influence his official actions, or to a public official who solicits or accepts such a bribe. The maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute for these offenses is fifteen years under 18 U.S.C. § 201(b) and (c), twenty years under 18 U.S.C. § 1951, and three years under 18 U.S.C. § 872.

The object and nature of a bribe may vary widely from case to case. In some cases, the object may be commercial advantage (e.g., preferential treatment in the award of a government contract). In others, the object may be issuance of a license to which the recipient is not entitled. In still others, the object may be the obstruction of justice. Consequently, a guideline for the offense must be designed to cover diverse situations.

In determining the net value of the benefit received or to be received, the value of the bribe is not deducted from the gross value of such benefit; the harm is the same regardless of value of the bribe paid to receive the benefit. Where the value of the bribe exceeds the value of the benefit or the value of the benefit cannot be determined, the value of the bribe is used because it is likely that the payer of such a bribe expected something in return that would be worth more than the value of the bribe. Moreover, for deterrence purposes, the punishment should be commensurate with the gain to the payer or the recipient of the bribe, whichever is higher.

Under §2C1.1(b)(2)(B), if the payment was for the purpose of influencing an official act by certain officials, the offense level is increased by 8 levels if this increase is greater than that provided under §2C1.1(b)(2)(A).

Under §2C1.1(c)(1), if the payment was to facilitate the commission of another criminal offense, the guideline applicable to a conspiracy to commit that other offense will apply if the result is greater than that determined above. For example, if a bribe was given to a law enforcement officer to allow the smuggling of a quantity of cocaine, the guideline for conspiracy to import cocaine would be applied if it resulted in a greater offense level.

Under §2C1.1(c)(2), if the payment was to conceal another criminal offense or obstruct justice in respect to another criminal offense, the guideline from §2X3.1 (Accessory After the Fact) or §2J1.2 (Obstruction of Justice), as appropriate, will apply if the result is greater than that determined above. For example, if a bribe was given for the purpose of concealing the offense of espionage, the guideline for accessory after the fact to espionage would be applied.

Under §2C1.1(c)(3), if the offense involved forcible extortion, the guideline from §2B3.2 (Extortion by Force or Threat of Injury or Serious Damage) will apply if the result is greater than that determined above.

When the offense level is determined under §2C1.1(c)(1), (2), or (3), an adjustment from §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill) may apply.

Section 2C1.1 also applies to extortion by officers or employees of the United States in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 872, and Hobbs Act extortion, or attempted extortion, under color of official right in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1951. The Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1951(b)(2), applies in part to any person who acts "under color of official right." This statute applies to extortionate conduct by, among others, officials and employees of state and local governments. The panoply of conduct that may be prosecuted under the Hobbs Act varies from a city building inspector who demands a small amount of money from the owner of an apartment building to ignore code violations to a state court judge who extracts substantial interest-free loans from attorneys who have cases pending in his court.

Offenses involving attempted bribery are frequently not completed because the victim reports the offense to authorities or is acting in an undercover capacity. Failure to complete the offense does not lessen the defendant’s culpability in attempting to use public position for personal gain. Therefore, solicitations and attempts are treated as equivalent to the underlying offense.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 18); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 120-122); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendments 367 and 422); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 547); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2C1.2. Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Gratuity

(a) Base Offense Level: 7

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the offense involved more than one gratuity, increase by 2 levels.

(2) (If more than one applies, use the greater):

(A) If the value of the gratuity (i) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (ii) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(B) If the gratuity was given, or to be given, to an elected official or any official holding a high-level decision-making or sensitive position, increase by 8 levels.

(c) Special Instruction for Fines - Organizations

(1) In lieu of the pecuniary loss under subsection (a)(3) of §8C2.4 (Base Fine), use the value of the unlawful payment.

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Official holding a high-level decision-making or sensitive position" includes, for example, prosecuting attorneys, judges, agency administrators, supervisory law enforcement officers, and other governmental officials with similar levels of responsibility. 2.Do not apply the adjustment in §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position or Trust or Use of Special Skill).

3. In some cases, the public official is the instigator of the offense. In others, a private citizen who is attempting to ingratiate himself or his business with the public official may be the initiator. This factor may appropriately be considered in determining the placement of the sentence within the applicable guideline range.

4. Related payments that, in essence, constitute a single gratuity (e.g., separate payments for airfare and hotel for a single vacation trip) are to be treated as a single gratuity, even if charged in separate counts.

Background: This section applies to the offering, giving, soliciting, or receiving of a gratuity to a public official in respect to an official act. A corrupt purpose is not an element of this offense. An adjustment is provided where the value of the gratuity exceeded $2,000, or where the public official was an elected official or held a high-level decision-making or sensitive position.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 121); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 422); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2C1.3. Conflict of Interest; Payment or Receipt of Unauthorized Compensation

(a) Base Offense Level: 6

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the offense involved actual or planned harm to the government, increase by 4 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the offense involved a bribe or gratuity, apply §2C1.1 (Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Bribe; Extortion Under Color of Official Right) or §2C1.2 (Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Gratuity), as appropriate, if the resulting offense level is greater than the offense level determined above.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 203, 205, 207, 208, 209, 1909. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Note:

1. Abuse of Position of Trust.—Do not apply the adjustment in §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 534); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 619).

§2C1.4. [Deleted]

Historical Note: Section 2C1.4 (Payment or Receipt of Unauthorized Compensation), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective November 1, 1998 (see Appendix C, amendment 588), was deleted by consolidation with §2C1.3 effective November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 619).

§2C1.5. Payments to Obtain Public Office

(a)Base Offense Level: 8

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 210, 211.

Application Note:

1. Do not apply the adjustment in §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

Background: Under 18 U.S.C. § 210, it is unlawful to pay, offer, or promise anything of value to a person, firm, or corporation in consideration of procuring appointive office. Under 18 U.S.C. § 211, it is unlawful to solicit or accept anything of value in consideration of a promise of the use of influence in obtaining appointive federal office. Both offenses are misdemeanors for which the maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute is one year.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987.

§2C1.6. Loan or Gratuity to Bank Examiner, or Gratuity for Adjustment of Farm Indebtedness, or Procuring Bank Loan, or Discount of Commercial Paper

(a)Base Offense Level: 7

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the value of the gratuity (i) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (ii) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 212-214, 217.

Application Note:

1. Do not apply the adjustment in §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

Background: Violations of 18 U.S.C. §§ 212 and 213 involve the offer to, or acceptance by, a bank examiner of a loan or gratuity. Violations of 18 U.S.C. § 214 involve the offer or receipt of anything of value for procuring a loan or discount of commercial paper from a Federal Reserve bank. Violations of 18 U.S.C. § 217 involve the acceptance of a fee or other consideration by a federal employee for adjusting or cancelling a farm debt. These offenses are misdemeanors for which the maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute is one year.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).

§2C1.7. Fraud Involving Deprivation of the Intangible Right to the Honest Services of Public Officials; Conspiracy to Defraud by Interference with Governmental Functions

(a) Base Offense Level: 10

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) (If more than one applies, use the greater):

(A) If the loss to the government, or the value of anything obtained or to be obtained by a public official or others acting with a public official, whichever is greater (i) exceeded $2,000 but did not exceed $5,000, increase by 1 level; or (ii) exceeded $5,000, increase by the number of levels from the table in §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud) corresponding to that amount.

(B) If the offense involved an elected official or any official holding a high-level decision-making or sensitive position, increase by 8 levels.

(c) Cross References

(1) If the offense was committed for the purpose of facilitating the commission of another criminal offense, apply the offense guideline applicable to a conspiracy to commit that other offense if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(2) If the offense was committed for the purpose of concealing, or obstructing justice in respect to, another criminal offense, apply §2X3.1 (Accessory After the Fact) or §2J1.2 (Obstruction of Justice), as appropriate, in respect to that other offense if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(3) If the offense involved a threat of physical injury or property destruction, apply §2B3.2 (Extortion by Force or Threat of Injury or Serious Damage) if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.

(4) If the offense is covered more specifically under §2C1.1 (Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Bribe; Extortion Under Color of Official Right), §2C1.2 (Offering, Giving, Soliciting, or Receiving a Gratuity), or §2C1.3 (Conflict of Interest), apply the offense guideline that most specifically covers the offense.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 371, 1341-1343.

Application Notes:

1. This guideline applies only to offenses committed by public officials or others acting with them that involve (A) depriving others of the intangible right to honest services (such offenses may be prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. §§ 1341-1343), or (B) conspiracy to defraud the United States by interfering with governmental functions (such offenses may be prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. § 371). "Public official," as used in this guideline, includes officers and employees of federal, state, or local government.

2. "Official holding a high-level decision-making or sensitive position" includes, for example, prosecuting attorneys, judges, agency administrators, supervisory law enforcement officers, and other governmental officials with similar levels of responsibility.

3. "Loss", for purposes of subsection (b)(1)(A), shall be determined in accordance with Application Note 2 of the Commentary to §2B1.1 (Theft, Property Destruction, and Fraud).

4. Do not apply §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill) except where the offense level is determined under §2C1.7(c)(1), (2), or (3). In such cases, an adjustment from §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill) may apply.

5. Where the court finds that the defendant’s conduct was part of a systematic or pervasive corruption of a governmental function, process, or office that may cause loss of public confidence in government, an upward departure may be warranted. See Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).

6. For the purposes of determining whether to apply the cross references in this section, the "resulting offense level" means the greater final offense level (i.e., the offense level determined by taking into account both the Chapter Two offense level and any applicable adjustments from Chapter Three, Parts A-D).

Background: The maximum term of imprisonment authorized by statute under 18 U.S.C. §§ 371 and 1341-1343 is five years.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 368). Amended effective November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 468); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 547); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 617).