2001 Federal Sentencing Guideline Manual


§2M5.1. Evasion of Export Controls

(a) Base Offense Level (Apply the greater):

(1) 26, if national security controls or controls relating to the proliferation of nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons or materials were evaded; or

(2) 14, otherwise.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 50 U.S.C. App. §§ 2401-2420.

Application Notes:

1. In the case of a violation during time of war or armed conflict, an upward departure may be warranted.

2. In determining the sentence within the applicable guideline range, the court may consider the degree to which the violation threatened a security interest of the United States, the volume of commerce involved, the extent of planning or sophistication, and whether there were multiple occurrences. Where such factors are present in an extreme form, a departure from the guidelines may be warranted. See Chapter Five, Part K (Departures).

3. In addition to the provisions for imprisonment, 50 U.S.C. App. § 2410 contains provisions for criminal fines and forfeiture as well as civil penalties. The maximum fine for individual defendants is $250,000. In the case of corporations, the maximum fine is five times the value of the exports involved or $1 million, whichever is greater. When national security controls are violated, in addition to any other sanction, the defendant is subject to forfeiture of any interest in, security of, or claim against: any goods or tangible items that were the subject of the violation; property used to export or attempt to export that was the subject of the violation; and any proceeds obtained directly or indirectly as a result of the violation.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendment 633).