2001 Federal Sentencing Guideline Manual


§2A2.4. Obstructing or Impeding Officers

(a) Base Offense Level: 6

(b) Specific Offense Characteristic

(1) If the conduct involved physical contact, or if a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was possessed and its use was threatened, increase by 3 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1)If the conduct constituted aggravated assault, apply §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 111, 1501, 1502, 3056(d). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1.The base offense level reflects the fact that the victim was a governmental officer performing official duties. Therefore, do not apply §3A1.2 (Official Victim) unless subsection (c) requires the offense level to be determined under §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault). Conversely, the base offense level does not reflect the possibility that the defendant may create a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to another person in the course of fleeing from a law enforcement official (although an offense under 18 U.S.C. § 758 for fleeing or evading a law enforcement checkpoint at high speed will often, but not always, involve the creation of that risk). If the defendant creates that risk and no higher guideline adjustment is applicable for the conduct creating the risk, apply §3C1.2 (Reckless Endangerment During Flight).

2.Definitions of "firearm" and "dangerous weapon" are found in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

3.The base offense level does not assume any significant disruption of governmental functions. In situations involving such disruption, an upward departure may be warranted. See §5K2.7 (Disruption of Governmental Function).

Background: Violations of 18 U.S.C. §§ 1501, 1502, and 3056(d) are misdemeanors; violation of 18 U.S.C. § 111 is a felony. The guideline has been drafted to provide offense levels that are identical to those otherwise provided for assaults involving an official victim; when no assault is involved, the offense level is 6.

Historical Note: Effective October 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 64). Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 89 and 90); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 443); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 550).