1994 Guidelines Manual

PART X - OTHER OFFENSES

1. CONSPIRACIES, ATTEMPTS, SOLICITATIONS

2X1.1. Attempt, Solicitation, or Conspiracy (Not Covered by a Specific Offense Guideline)

(a) Base Offense Level: The base offense level from the guideline for the substantive offense, plus any adjustments from such guideline for any intended offense conduct that can be established with reasonable certainty.

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If an attempt, decrease by 3 levels, unless the defendant completed all the acts the defendant believed necessary for successful completion of the substantive offense or the circumstances demonstrate that the defendant was about to complete all such acts but for apprehension or interruption by some similar event beyond the defendant's control.

(2) If a conspiracy, decrease by 3 levels, unless the defendant or a co-conspirator completed all the acts the conspirators believed necessary on their part for the successful completion of the substantive offense or the circumstances demonstrate that the conspirators were about to complete all such acts but for apprehension or interruption by some similar event beyond their control.

(3) (A) If a solicitation, decrease by 3 levels unless the person solicited to commit or aid the substantive offense completed all the acts he believed necessary for successful completion of the substantive offense or the circumstances demonstrate that the person was about to complete all such acts but for apprehension or interruption by some similar event beyond such person's control.

(B) If the statute treats solicitation of the substantive offense identically with the substantive offense, do not apply subdivision (A) above; i.e., the offense level for solicitation is the same as that for the substantive offense.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) When an attempt, solicitation, or conspiracy is expressly covered by another offense guideline section, apply that guideline section.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. 371, 372, 2271. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Certain attempts, conspiracies, and solicitations are expressly covered by other offense guidelines.

Offense guidelines that expressly cover attempts include:

2A2.1, 2A3.1, 2A3.2, 2A3.3, 2A3.4, 2A4.2, 2A5.1;

2C1.1, 2C1.2;

2D1.1, 2D1.2, 2D1.5, 2D1.6, 2D1.7, 2D1.8, 2D1.9, 2D1.10, 2D1.11, 2D1.12, 2D1.13, 2D2.1, 2D2.2, 2D3.1, 2D3.2;

2E5.1;

2N1.1;

2Q1.4.

Offense guidelines that expressly cover conspiracies include:

2A1.5;

2D1.1, 2D1.2, 2D1.5, 2D1.6, 2D1.7, 2D1.8, 2D1.9, 2D1.10, 2D1.11, 2D1.12, 2D1.13, 2D2.1, 2D2.2, 2D3.1, 2D3.2;

2H1.1;

2T1.9.

Offense guidelines that expressly cover solicitations include:

2A1.5;

2C1.1, 2C1.2;

2E5.1.

2. "Substantive offense," as used in this guideline, means the offense that the defendant was convicted of soliciting, attempting, or conspiring to commit. Under 2X1.1(a), the base offense level will be the same as that for the substantive offense. But the only specific offense characteristics from the guideline for the substantive offense that apply are those that are determined to have been specifically intended or actually occurred. Speculative specific offense characteristics will not be applied. For example, if two defendants are arrested during the conspiratorial stage of planning an armed bank robbery, the offense level ordinarily would not include aggravating factors regarding possible injury to others, hostage taking, discharge of a weapon, or obtaining a large sum of money, because such factors would be speculative. The offense level would simply reflect the level applicable to robbery of a financial institution, with the enhancement for possession of a weapon. If it was established that the defendants actually intended to physically restrain the teller, the specific offense characteristic for physical restraint would be added. In an attempted theft, the value of the items that the defendant attempted to steal would be considered.

3. If the substantive offense is not covered by a specific guideline, see 2X5.1 (Other Offenses).

4. In certain cases, the participants may have completed (or have been about to complete but for apprehension or interruption) all of the acts necessary for the successful completion of part, but not all, of the intended offense. In such cases, the offense level for the count (or group of closely related multiple counts) is whichever of the following is greater: the offense level for the intended offense minus 3 levels (under 2X1.1(b)(1), (b)(2), or (b)(3)(A)), or the offense level for the part of the offense for which the necessary acts were completed (or about to be completed but for apprehension or interruption). For example, where the intended offense was the theft of $800,000 but the participants completed (or were about to complete) only the acts necessary to steal $30,000, the offense level is the offense level for the theft of $800,000 minus 3 levels, or the offense level for the theft of $30,000, whichever is greater.

In the case of multiple counts that are not closely related counts, whether the 3-level reduction under 2X1.1(b)(1), (b)(2), or (b)(3)(A) applies is determined separately for each count.

Background: In most prosecutions for conspiracies or attempts, the substantive offense was substantially completed or was interrupted or prevented on the verge of completion by the intercession of law enforcement authorities or the victim. In such cases, no reduction of the offense level is warranted. Sometimes, however, the arrest occurs well before the defendant or any co-conspirator has completed the acts necessary for the substantive offense. Under such circumstances, a reduction of 3 levels is provided under 2X1.1(b)(1) or (2).

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 42);November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 238-242); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 311 and 327); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 411); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendments 444 and 447); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 496).

2. AIDING AND ABETTING

2X2.1. Aiding and Abetting

The offense level is the same level as that for the underlying offense.

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. 2.

Application Note:

1. "Underlying offense" means the offense the defendant is convicted of aiding or abetting.

Background: A defendant convicted of aiding and abetting is punishable as a principal. 18 U.S.C. 2. This section provides that aiding and abetting the commission of an offense has the same offense level as the underlying offense. An adjustment for a mitigating role (3B1.2) may be applicable.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 359).

3. ACCESSORY AFTER THE FACT

2X3.1. Accessory After the Fact

(a) Base Offense Level: 6 levels lower than the offense level for the underlying offense, but in no event less than 4, or more than 30. Provided, that where the conduct is limited to harboring a fugitive, the offense level shall not be more than level 20.

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. 3, 757, 1071, 1072.

Application Notes:

1. "Underlying offense" means the offense as to which the defendant is convicted of being an accessory. Apply the base offense level plus any applicable specific offense characteristics that were known, or reasonably should have been known, by the defendant; see Application Note 10 of the Commentary to 1B1.3 (Relevant Conduct).

2. The adjustment from 3B1.2 (Mitigating Role) normally would not apply because an adjustment for reduced culpability is incorporated in the base offense level.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 243); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 380); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 496).

4. MISPRISION OF FELONY

2X4.1. Misprision of Felony

(a) Base Offense Level: 9 levels lower than the offense level for the underlying offense, but in no event less than 4, or more than 19.

Commentary

Statutory Provision: 18 U.S.C. 4.

Application Notes:

1. "Underlying offense" means the offense as to which the defendant is convicted of committing the misprision. Apply the base offense level plus any applicable specific offense characteristics that were known, or reasonably should have been known, by the defendant; see Application Note 10 of the Commentary to 1B1.3 (Relevant Conduct).

2. The adjustment from 3B1.2 (Mitigating Role) normally would not apply because an adjustment for reduced culpability is incorporated in the base offense level.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 244); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 496).

5. ALL OTHER OFFENSES

2X5.1. Other Offenses

If the offense is a felony or Class A misdemeanor for which no guideline expressly has been promulgated, apply the most analogous offense guideline. If there is not a sufficiently analogous guideline, the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 3553(b) shall control, except that any guidelines and policy statements that can be applied meaningfully in the absence of a Chapter Two offense guideline shall remain applicable.

Commentary

Application Note:

1. Guidelines and policy statements that can be applied meaningfully in the absence of a Chapter Two offense guideline include: 5B1.3 (Conditions of Probation); 5B1.4 (Recommended Conditions of Probation and Supervised Release); 5D1.1 (Imposition of a Term of Supervised Release); 5D1.2 (Term of Supervised Release); 5D1.3 (Conditions of Supervised Release); 5E1.1 (Restitution); 5E1.3 (Special Assessments); 5E1.4 (Forfeiture); Chapter Five, Part F (Sentencing Options); 5G1.3 (Imposition of a Sentence on a Defendant Subject to an Undischarged Term of Imprisonment); Chapter Five, Part H (Specific Offender Characteristics); Chapter Five, Part J (Relief from Disability); Chapter Five, Part K (Departures); Chapter Six, Part A (Sentencing Procedures); Chapter Six, Part B (Plea Agreements).

Background: Many offenses, especially assimilative crimes, are not listed in the Statutory Index or in any of the lists of Statutory Provisions that follow each offense guideline. Nonetheless, the specific guidelines that have been promulgated cover the type of criminal behavior that most such offenses proscribe. The court is required to determine if there is a sufficiently analogous offense guideline, and, if so, to apply the guideline that is most analogous. Where there is no sufficiently analogous guideline, the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 3553(b) control. That statute provides in relevant part as follows: "In the absence of an applicable sentencing guideline, the court shall impose an appropriate sentence, having due regard for the purposes set forth in [18 U.S.C. 3553] subsection (a)(2). In the absence of an applicable sentencing guideline in the case of an offense other than a petty offense, the court shall also have due regard for the relationship of the sentence imposed to sentences prescribed by guidelines applicable to similar offenses and offenders, and to the applicable policy statements of the Sentencing Commission."

The sentencing guidelines apply to convictions under 18 U.S.C. 13 (Assimilative Crimes Act) and 18 U.S.C. 1153 (Indian Major Crimes Act); see 18 U.S.C. 3551(a), as amended by section 1602 of Public Law 101-647.

Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 43); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 412).

United States Sentencing Commission