CHAPTER FOUR - CRIMINAL HISTORY AND CRIMINAL LIVELIHOOD
PART B - CAREER OFFENDERS AND CRIMINAL LIVELIHOOD
§4B1.3. Criminal Livelihood
If the defendant committed an offense as part of a pattern of criminal conduct engaged in as a livelihood, his offense level shall be not less than 13, unless §3E1.1 (Acceptance of Responsibility) applies, in which event his offense level shall be not less than 11.
1. "Pattern of criminal conduct" means planned criminal acts occurring over a substantial period of time. Such acts may involve a single course of conduct or independent offenses.
2. "Engaged in as a livelihood" means that (A) the defendant derived income from the pattern of criminal conduct that in any twelve-month period exceeded 2,000 times the then existing hourly minimum wage under federal law; and (B) the totality of circumstances shows that such criminal conduct was the defendant's primary occupation in that twelve-month period (e.g., the defendant engaged in criminal conduct rather than regular, legitimate employment; or the defendant's legitimate employment was merely a front for the defendant's criminal conduct).
Background: Section 4B1.3 implements 28 U.S.C. § 994(i)(2), which directs the Commission to ensure that the guidelines specify a "substantial term of imprisonment" for a defendant who committed an offense as part of a pattern of criminal conduct from which the defendant derived a substantial portion of the defendant's income.
Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective June 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 50); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 269); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 354); November 1, 2010 (see Appendix C, amendment 747).