§2B3.2. Extortion by Force or Threat of Injury or Serious Damage
(a) Base Offense Level: 18
(b) Specific Offense Characteristics
(1) If the offense involved an express or implied threat of death, bodily injury, or kidnapping, increase by 2 levels.
(2) If the greater of the amount demanded or the loss to the victim exceeded $10,000, increase by the corresponding number of levels from the table in §2B3.1(b)(7).
(3) (A) (i) If a firearm was discharged, increase by 7 levels; (ii) if a firearm was otherwise used, increase by 6 levels; (iii) if a firearm was brandished or possessed, increase by 5 levels; (iv) if a dangerous weapon was otherwise used, increase by 4 levels; or (v) if a dangerous weapon was brandished or possessed, increase by 3 levels; or
(B) If (i) the offense involved preparation to carry out a threat of (I) death; (II) serious bodily injury; (III) kidnapping; (IV) product tampering; or (V) damage to a computer system used to maintain or operate a critical infrastructure, or by or for a government entity in furtherance of the administration of justice, national defense, or national security; or (ii) the participant(s) otherwise demonstrated the ability to carry out a threat described in any of subdivisions (i)(I) through (i)(V), increase by 3 levels.
(4) If any victim sustained bodily injury, increase the offense level according to the seriousness of the injury:
|Degree of Bodily Injury||Increase in Level|
|(A)||Bodily Injury||add 2|
|(B)||Serious Bodily Injury||add 4|
|(C)||Permanent or Life-Threatening Bodily Injury||add 6|
(D) If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (A) and (B), add 3 levels; or
(E) If the degree of injury is between that specified in subdivisions (B) and (C), add 5 levels.
Provided, however, that the cumulative adjustments from (3) and (4) shall not exceed 11 levels.
(5) (A) If any person was abducted to facilitate commission of the offense or to facilitate escape, increase by 4 levels; or (B) if any person was physically restrained to facilitate commission of the offense or to facilitate escape, increase by 2 levels.
(c) Cross References
(1) If a victim was killed under circumstances that would constitute murder under 18 U.S.C. § 1111 had such killing taken place within the territorial or maritime jurisdiction of the United States, apply §2A1.1 (First Degree Murder).
(2) If the offense was tantamount to attempted murder, apply §2A2.1 (Assault with Intent to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder) if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.
Historical Note: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 112, 113, and 303); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 316); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 366); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 479); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 551); November 1, 1998 (see Appendix C, amendment 586); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 601); November 1, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 654).