CHAPTER TWO - PART A - OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON

§2A2.4. Obstructing or Impeding Officers

(a) Base Offense Level: 10

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If (A) the offense involved physical contact; or (B) a dangerous weapon (including a firearm) was possessed and its use was threatened, increase by 3 levels.

(2) If the victim sustained bodily injury, increase by 2 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the conduct constituted aggravated assault, apply §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault).

Commentary

Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 111, 1501, 1502, 2237(a)(1), (a)(2)(A), 3056(d). For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. Definitions.—For purposes of this guideline, “bodily injury”, “dangerous weapon”, and “firearm” have the meaning given those terms in Application Note 1 of the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

2. Application of Certain Chapter Three Adjustments.—The base offense level incorporates the fact that the victim was a governmental officer performing official duties. Therefore, do not apply §3A1.2 (Official Victim) unless, pursuant to subsection (c), the offense level is determined under §2A2.2 (Aggravated Assault). Conversely, the base offense level does not incorporate the possibility that the defendant may create a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to another person in the course of fleeing from a law enforcement official (although an offense under 18 U.S.C. § 758 for fleeing or evading a law enforcement checkpoint at high speed will often, but not always, involve the creation of that risk). If the defendant creates that risk and no higher guideline adjustment is applicable for the conduct creating the risk, apply §3C1.2 (Reckless Endangerment During Flight).

3. Upward Departure Provision.—The base offense level does not assume any significant disruption of governmental functions. In situations involving such disruption, an upward departure may be warranted. See §5K2.7 (Disruption of Governmental Function).

Historical Note: Effective October 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendment 64). Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 89 and 90); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 443); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 550); November 1, 2004 (see Appendix C, amendment 663); November 1, 2005 (see Appendix C, amendment 679); November 1, 2007 (see Appendix C, amendment 699).

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